Daily Archives: December 8, 2015

Lung Cancer: Causes, Symptoms and Preventions

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a disease that may be caused by air pollution. According to LungCancer.org, lung cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. Over time, the abnormal cells can develop into tumors and impair the lung's primary function: to supply the blood, and therefore the body, with oxygen. LungCancer.org states that there are two principle types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer or NSCLC and small cell lung cancer or SCLC. According to a 2002 study by C. Arden Pope III, Ph.D. and colleagues published in “The Journal of the American Medical Association,” long-term exposure to combustion-generated fine particulate matter poses a significant risk for cardiopulmoary and lung cancer mortality. A 2000 study by Fredrik Nyberg and colleagues published in the journal “Epidemiology” concludes that urban air pollution boosts lung cancer risk, and that motor vehicle emissions may be particularly problematic. – See more at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/176670-diseases-caused-by-air-pollution/#sthash.QPaUzMdK.dpuf

There are two different types of lung cancer – small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) – which differ in terms of how they grow and spread to other parts of the body and how they’re treated.

Lung cancer is usually fatal – the overall survival rate is about 16% at five years after diagnosis. In 2010, lung cancer was the most common cause of death from cancer in New Zealand, accounting for 19% of all cancer deaths (ahead of bowel / colorectal cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer).

The reason for the low rate of survival is that lung cancer tends to spread (metastasize) rapidly to other parts of the body very early after it first forms, i.e. before it is diagnosed.


The development of lung cancer is strongly associated with cigarette smoking – approximately 90% of lung cancers are attributable to tobacco use. Pipe and cigar smoking can also cause lung cancer, but the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which are cancer-causing (carcinogens).

Passive smoking, i.e. the inhalation of tobacco smoke by non-smokers who live or work with smokers, is also an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer.

Although the majority of lung cancers are linked to tobacco smoking, not all smokers go on to develop lung cancer suggesting that genetic susceptibility (i.e. family history) may play a role in the development of lung cancer.

Other causes of lung cancer include air pollution (from vehicles, industry, and power generation) and inhalation of asbestos fibres (usually in the workplace).

Signs, symptoms, and diagnosis

Symptoms of lung cancer are varied and warning signs are not always obvious. Up to 25% of people who get lung cancer display no symptoms. In people who do display symptoms, they include the following:
a) Persistent cough and hoarseness
b) Shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest pain
c) Blood-streaked sputum
d) Chest pain
e) Frequent episodes of bronchitis or pneumonia
f) Weight loss, weakness, and fatigue.
A wide range of diagnostic tests and procedures are used to diagnose lung cancer, including taking a patient history, physical examination, blood tests, chest x-rays, computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, bone scans, bronchoscopy, cytological studies of sputum, bronchial washings, and fine needle biopsy. Many of these procedures are also used to determine the stage of the cancer.


Treatment for cancer involves a combination of surgery to remove cancer cells, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. Lung cancer is incurable unless complete surgical removal of the tumour cells can be achieved.

Surgery is the most effective treatment for lung cancer but only about 20% of lung cancers are suitable for surgery i.e. Stage I and II NSCLC and cancer that has not spread beyond the lung.

Radiation therapy may be used for both NSCLC and SCLC and is a good option for people are not suitable for surgery or who refuse surgery.

Chemotherapy is used for both NSCLC and SCLC. Chemotherapy drugs may be given alone or in combination with surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is the treatment of first choice for SCLC since it has usually spread extensively in the body by the time it has been diagnosed.

Also used in the treatment of lung cancer are targeted therapies. These are drugs (gefitinib and erlotinib) or antibodies (cetuximab, bevacizumab) that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in tumour growth and progression. They are used in some patients with NSCLC that does not respond to standard chemotherapy.


The most effective measure that can be taken to prevent the development of lung cancer is to stop smoking. Reducing exposure to passive smoking is also an effective method of prevention.

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Rabies – Causes, Symptoms and Preventions

At a Glance
Rabies is a life-threatening condition that causes tens of thousands of deaths worldwide every year. Dogs are the most common source.
It’s caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system. The virus is transmitted to humans via bites and scratches from infected animals.
Rabies can be treated with the rabies vaccine if you seek medical attention as soon as you think you might have symptoms. To help prevent it, make sure that you and your pets are vaccinated.
Rabies — the word probably brings to mind an enraged animal frothing at the mouth. An encounter with an infected animal can result in a painful, life-threatening condition.

According to the World Health Organization, up to 59,000 people worldwide die from rabies every year. Ninety-nine percent of them have been bitten by a rabid dog. However, the availability of vaccines for both animals and humans has led to a steep decline in rabies cases in the United States, where there are two to three rabies deaths a year.

Rabies is caused by a virus that affects the central nervous system, particularly causing inflammation in the brain. Domestic dogs, cats, and rabbits, and wild animals, such as skunks, raccoons, and bats, are able to transfer the virus to humans via bites and scratches. The key to fighting the virus is a quick response.

Symptoms of rabies

-The initial symptoms of rabies are mild, but they quickly become serious.
-The incubation period
The incubation period is the time it takes for symptoms to develop after a person is infected with the virus. The incubation period for rabies is usually two to 12 weeks, although it can be as short as four days. It is unusual for the incubation period to last for more than a year.
-The closer the site of infection is to your brain, the shorter the incubation period. For example, a bite to your face, head or neck will have a shorter incubation period than a bite to your arm or leg.
-The length of the incubation period is important as it’s the only period in which treatment can be successful.-Initial symptoms
-The initial symptoms of rabies are often vague and it can be easy to mistake them for other, less serious, types of infection. They include:
a) fever
b) headache
c) feeling generally unwell
d) feeling scared or anxious
e) Around half of people also experience pain and a tingling sensation at the infection site.

Advanced symptoms
Initial symptoms of rabies last for two to 10 days before more severe symptoms start to develop. These typically include aggressive behaviour, hallucinations, agitation and producing lots of saliva.
When to seek medical advice
If you’re in a part of the world known to be affected by rabies, always seek medical advice as soon as possible if you’re bitten or scratched by an animal, particularly a dog. You can also catch rabies if you have an open wound that is licked by an infected animal.

Treating and Preventing Rabies
a) People should seek immediate treatment by a doctor after a bite or contact with an infected animal. The sooner treatment is started, the more likely a person will avoid developing the disease. Once symptoms appear, the rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin are not effective and death is almost certain. Rabies is a disease that must be reported to the authorities by law in Canada.

b) The most common treatment of rabies is with postexposure prophylaxis. The first step in treating rabies and to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms is to wash the wound with soap and water.

The next critical step to prevent rabies includes a dose of immunoglobulin against the rabies virus followed by a strict schedule of injections of the rabies vaccine. The immunoglobulin provides immediate protection against the virus to “bridge the gap” until the vaccine starts working. The vaccine helps the person’s immune system produce antibodies against the potentially lethal virus. The vaccine protects individuals for approximately 2 years.

People such as veterinarians or cattle farmers who work with potentially infected animals or humans need to be vaccinated against rabies. They will also have periodic blood tests to see whether they need booster shots of the rabies vaccine.

You can prevent being infected with the rabies virus by remembering these tips:

-do not feed wild animals and stay at a safe distance when observing them
-supervise children and teach them not to approach or touch animals they do not know
-stay away from animals showing signs of rabies
-do not bring home wild animals
-if you suspect an animal is rabid, stay away from it and contact the local authorities
-if you have pets or livestock, make sure to vaccinate them against rabies

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Cause and Cure for Jaundice

Meaning of Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a term used to describe a yellowish tinge to the skin and sclerae (the white part of the eye) that is caused by hyperbilirubinemia (an excess of bilirubin in the blood). Body fluids may also be yellow. The color of the skin and sclerae varies depending on levels of bilirubin; mildly elevated levels display yellow skin and sclerae, while highly elevated levels display brown.

Causes and symptoms
There are many different causes for jaundice, but they can be divided into three categories based on where they start-before, in, or after the liver (prehepatic, hepatic and post-hepatic). When bilirubin begins its life cycle, it cannot be dissolved in water. The liver changes it so that it is soluble in water. These two types of bilirubin are called unconjugated (insoluble) and conjugated (soluble). Blood tests can easily distinguish between these two types of bilirubin.
Home Remedies for Jaundice

1: 1/4 tsp of turmeric powder mixed in a glass of hot water taken 2-3 times a day.

2: Make a paste of tender papaya leaves. Take 1/2 tsp of this paste with 1 tsp honey.

3: Boil 1 cup of water, when it boils add 8-10 lemon leaves. Cover and leave for 4-5 minutes. Drink the decoction for 4-5 days.

4: Lots of lime juice should be consumed.

5: 1/2 tsp ginger juice, 1 tsp mint juice and 1tsp lime juice to be taken as often as possible

6: 1 cup of juice made with radish leaves taken 2 times a day.

7: First thing in the morning, drink 1 glass of fresh Tomato juice. Add a pinch of salt and pepper to this.


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