Daily Archives: December 17, 2015

Tuberculosis- Cause, Symptoms and Preventions

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection and TB disease. Both latent TB infection and TB disease can be treated.

Only people who have active TB infections can spread the TB bacteria. Coughing, sneezing, even talking can release the bacteria into the surrounding air, and people breathing this air can then become infected. This is more likely to happen if you’re living in close quarters with someone who has TB or if a room isn’t well ventilated.

Once a person is infected, the bacteria will settle in the air sacs and passages of the lungs and, in most cases, will be contained by the immune system.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis
While latent TB is symptom less, the symptoms of active TB include the following:
Coughing, sometimes with mucus or blood
Loss of weight
Loss of appetite
Night sweats.

Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. When TB occurs outside of the lungs, the symptoms can vary accordingly. Without treatment, TB can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream:

1. TB infecting the bones can lead to spinal pain and joint destruction
2. TB infecting the brain can cause meningitis
3. TB infecting the liver and kidneys can impair their waste filtration functions and lead to blood in the urine
4. TB infecting the heart can impair the heart’s ability to pump blood, resulting in a condition called cardiac tamponade that can be fatal.

Diagnosis of tuberculosis
To check for TB, a health care provider will use a stethoscope to listen to the lungs and will check for swelling in the lymph nodes. They will also ask about symptoms and medical history as well as assessing a person’s risk of exposure to TB.

Prevention of tuberculosis Face mask
If you have active TB, a face mask can help lower the risk of the disease spreading to other people.
A few general measures can be taken to prevent the spread of active TB. Avoiding other people by not going to school or work, or sleeping in the same room as someone, will help to minimize the risk of germs from reaching anyone else. Wearing a mask, covering the mouth and ventilating rooms can also limit the spread of bacteria.

In some countries, BCG injections are given to children in order to vaccinate them against tuberculosis. It is not recommended for general use in the US because it is not effective in adults, and it can adversely influence the results of skin testing diagnoses.

The most important thing to do is to finish entire courses of medication when they are prescribed. MDR-TB bacteria are far deadlier than regular TB bacteria. Some cases of MDR-TB require extensive courses of chemotherapy, which can be expensive and cause severe adverse drug reactions in patients.


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Norovirus (Winter Vomiting Disease)

About Norovirus (Winter Vomiting Disease) – FAQ’s

Viral gastroenteritis occurs throughout the year but typically with increased frequency in the winter months. (Previously known as Winter Vomiting Disease). NOROVIRUS is the most common cause of infectious gastroenteritis (diarrhoea and vomiting). The illness is generally mild and people usually recover fully within 2-3 days and there are no long term effects that result from being infected. Infection can occur at any age as immunity is not long lasting.

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and some stomach cramping. nausea. Sometimes people additionally will have a low-grade fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and a general sense of tiredness. The illness is short lived and normally resolves within 2-3 days.

Duration of Illness
Symptoms usually begin 24 to 48 hours after ingestion of the virus, but can appear as early as 12 hours after exposure.
There is no evidence that sick persons can become long-term carriers of the virus, but the virus can be in the stool and vomit of infected persons, from the day they start to feel ill to as long as 2 weeks after they feel better.


Noroviruses are found in the stool or vomit of infected people. People can become infected with the virus in several ways, including:
1. eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated with norovirus by foodhandlers who have not washed their hands adequately
2. touching surfaces or objects contaminated with norovirus, and then placing their hand in their mouth or eating before washing their hands
3. having direct contact with another person who is infected and showing symptoms (for example, when caring for someone with illness, or sharing foods or eating utensils with someone who is ill)

Currently, there is no antiviral medication that works against Norovirus and there is no vaccine to prevent infection. Norovirus infection cannot be treated with antibiotics. This is because antibiotics work to fight bacteria and not viruses.

Norovirus illness is usually brief in healthy individuals. When people are ill with vomiting and diarrhoea, they should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Dehydration among young children, the elderly, the sick, can be common, and it is the most serious health effect that can result from Norovirus infection. By drinking oral rehydration fluids (ORF), juice, or water, people can reduce their chance of becoming dehydrated. Sports drinks do not replace the nutrients and minerals lost during this illness.

The Trust follows stringent infection control measures including:
a. Temporarily closing affected wards to new admissions;
b. Putting in place extra intensive cleaning on wards;
c. Cleaning affected areas with a detergent/bleach agent to kill the virus;
d. Staff wear gloves and aprons to deal with those patients who are affected and change these between each patients;
e. During an outbreak it is essential that staff, patients and visitors use soap and water for hand hygiene as this is the only known way of preventing the spread. Hand sanitising agents are not always effective against Norovirus.


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Home Remedies for Typhoid fever

1. Cold Compresses
One of the simplest home remedies for typhoid fever is applying cold compresses. This will help your body temperature come down effectively and quickly.

2. Increase Fluid Intake
Due to diarrhea and high fever, you may become dehydrated. Increasing your fluid intake may be an easy way to prevent this. In addition, it will encourage elimination of waste material and toxins as well as keep your body hydrated.

3. Homemade ORS
Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is essential to replenish fluid lost through diarrhea and prevent dehydration. You can do this with oral rehydration solution (ORS). ORS will reduce the intensity of typhoid symptoms and aid recovery.

4. Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple cider vinegar is energizing and a good remedy for typhoid fever. Its acidic property helps draw heat out of the skin, which in turn reduces high body temperature. Moreover, the minerals in apple cider vinegar replenish minerals lost due to diarrhea.

5. Garlic
The antimicrobial properties of garlic help fight off bacteria that cause typhoid fever. It will also boost your immune system. Moreover, it helps eliminate harmful toxins from the body and speed up recovery.

6. Basil
Basil is also one of the effective home remedies for typhoid fever. This herb contains antibacterial and antibiotic properties that can help eliminate the bacteria that cause the typhoid fever. Furthermore, it helps calm the stomach, bring down a fever and boost your immune system as well.

7. Cloves
One of the other helpful home remedies for typhoid fever is using cloves. The essential oils in cloves contain antibacterial agents, thus cloves can fight off the bacteria that cause typhoid fever. In addition, cloves also help ease diarrhea and vomiting as well, two typical symptoms of typhoid.

8. Bananas
Bananas can treat diarrhea and bring down the fever in people enduring typhoid. Especially, the pectin in bananas is a soluble fiber which helps absorb liquid in the intestines, thus decreasing diarrhea. Furthermore, the potassium present in bananas will help replace electrolytes lost during diarrhea and fever.

9. Buttermilk
Drinking buttermilk is another excellent herbal treatment for typhoid fever. It is easy on the stomach and aids recovery. It will also prevent dehydration.

10. Eat High-Nutrition Foods
It is very important to follow a special diet in order to provide your body proper nutrition. A healthy and good diet helps boost your immune system and balance your body’s electrolytes and fluids as well.


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14 Prevention tips for Cancer

1. Don’t use tobacco.
2. Protect yourself from the sun.
3. Get regular medical care
4. Get immunized(Hepatitis B, Human papillomavirus (HPV))
5. Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.
6. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active.
7. Avoid sugary drinks, and limit consumption of high-calorie foods, especially those low in fiber and rich in fat or added sugar.
8. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes (such as beans).
9. Limit consumption of red meats (including beef, pork, and lamb) and avoid processed meats.
10. If you drink alcohol, limit your daily intake to two drinks for men and one drink for women.
11. Limit consumption of salty foods and food processed with salt (sodium).
12. Don’t use supplements to try to protect against cancer.
13. It’s best for mothers to exclusively breastfeed their babies for up to six months and then add other liquids and foods.
14. After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the recommendations for cancer prevention.


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