• More than 100 reasons to quit tobacco

    1. Smokers have a greater risk of developing a severe case and dying from COVID-19.
    2. Everything stinks! From your skin, to your whole house, your clothes, and your fingers and breath.
    3. Tobacco causes teeth to yellow and creates excess dental plaque.
    4. Smoking tobacco and the use of smokeless tobacco cause bad breath.
    5. Tobacco makes your skin wrinkly, making you look older faster. Smoking prematurely ages the skin by wearing away proteins that give the skin elasticity, depleting it of vitamin A and restricting blood flow.
    6. These wrinkles are more apparent around the lips and eyes and tobacco also makes skin leathery and dry.
    7. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of developing psoriasis, a noncontagious inflammatory skin condition that leaves itchy, oozing red patches all over the body.
    8. Over 1 million people die every year from exposure to second-hand smoke.
    9. Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke are at risk of developing lung cancer.
    10. Cigarettes remain an important cause of accidental fires and resulting deaths.
    11. E-cigarettes also expose non-smokers and bystanders to nicotine and other harmful chemicals.
    12. Being exposed to second-hand smoke may increase the risk of progression from tuberculosis infection to active disease.
    13. Being exposed to second-hand smoke is associated with type 2 diabetes.
    14. Smokers’ children suffer reduced lung function, which continues to affect them in the form of chronic respiratory disorders in adulthood.
    15. Exposure of children to e-cigarette liquid continues to pose serious risks. There is a risk of the devices leaking, or of children swallowing the liquid.
    16. E-cigarettes have been known to cause serious injuries, including burns, through fires and explosions.
    17. School-aged children exposed to the harmful effects of second-hand smoke are also at risk for asthma through inflammation of the airways to the lungs.
    18. Children under 2 years of age who are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home could get middle-ear disease possibly leading to hearing loss and deafness.
    19. Quitting smoking decreases the risk of many diseases related to second-hand smoke in children, such as respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) and ear infections.
    20. You want to be a good example for your kids, friends, and loved ones.
    21. Tobacco use can affect social interactions and relationships negatively.
    22. Quitting means there are no restrictions on where you can go – you can mingle socially, without feeling isolated or having to go outside to smoke.
    23. Quitting can make you more productive – you won’t have to stop what you are doing to have a smoke all the time.
    24. One study found that smokers burn through an average of $1.4 million in personal costs, includes spending on cigarettes, medical costs and lower wages brought on by smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.
    25. Tobacco use affects the health and productivity of workers making them prone to missed days at work.
    26. Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco.
    27. Tobacco use burdens the global economy with an estimated US$ 1.4 trillion in healthcare costs for treating the diseases caused by tobacco and lost human capital from tobacco-attributable sickness and death.
    28. Smokers are more likely to experience infertility. Quitting smoking reduces difficulty getting pregnant, having premature births, babies with low birth weights and miscarriage.
    29. Smoking can cause erectile dysfunction. Smoking restricts blood flow to the penis creating an inability to achieve an erection. Erectile dysfunction is more common in smokers and very likely to persist or become permanent unless the man stops smoking early in life.
    30. Smoking also diminishes sperm count, motility and shape of the sperm in men.
    31. Every year, over 8 million people die from tobacco.
    32. Tobacco kills half of its users. Use of tobacco in any form robs you of your health and causes debilitating diseases.
    33. Smoking shisha is just as harmful as other forms of tobacco use.
    34. Chewing tobacco can cause mouth cancer, tooth loss, brown teeth, white patches and gum disease.
    35. The nicotine in smokeless tobacco is more easily absorbed than by smoking cigarettes enhancing its addictiveness.
    36. Tobacco growers are exposed to ill health by nicotine that is absorbed through the skin, as well as exposure to heavy pesticides and exposure to tobacco dust.
    37. In some countries, children are employed in tobacco farming, which impacts not only their health, but also their ability to attend school.
    38. Tobacco use can worsen poverty since tobacco users are at much higher risk of falling ill and dying prematurely of cancers, heart attacks, respiratory diseases or other tobacco-related diseases, depriving families of much-needed income and imposing additional costs for health care.
    39. The vast majority employed in the overall tobacco sector earn very little, while the big tobacco companies reap enormous profits.
    40. Heated tobacco products (HTPs) expose users to toxic emissions many of which can cause cancer.
    41. Heated tobacco products are themselves tobacco products, therefore, switching from conventional tobacco products to HTPs does not equal quitting.
    42. There is insufficient evidence to support the claim that heated tobacco products (HTPs) are less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes.
    43. Children and adolescents who use e-cigarettes at least double their chance of smoking cigarettes later in life.
    44. E-cigarette use increases your risk of heart disease and lung disorders.
    45. Nicotine in e-cigarettes is a highly addictive drug that can damage children’s developing brains.
    46. Tobacco use is responsible for 25% of all cancer deaths globally.
    47. Smokers are up to 22 times more likely to develop lung cancer in their lifetime than non-smokers. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, causing over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally.
    48. One in five tobacco smokers will develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in their lifetime, especially people who start smoking during their childhood and teenage years, since tobacco smoke significantly slows lung growth and development.
    49. Smoking can exacerbate asthma in adults, restricting their activity, contributing to disability and increasing the risk of severe asthma attacks requiring emergency care.
    50. Tobacco smoking more than doubles the risk of transforming tuberculosis from a latent state to an active state, and is also known to worsen the natural progression of the disease. About one quarter of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis.
    51. Just a few cigarettes a day, occasional smoking, or exposure to second-hand smoke increase the risk of heart disease.
    52. Tobacco smokers have up to twice the risk of stroke and a fourfold increased risk of heart disease.
    53. Tobacco smoke damages the arteries of the heart, causing the build-up of plaque and development of blood clots, thereby restricting blood flow and eventually leading to heart attacks and strokes.
    54. Use of nicotine and tobacco products increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    55. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use cause oral cancer, cancers of the lips, throat (pharynx and larynx) and oesophagus.
    56. Surgical removal of the cancerous larynx can lead to the need for tracheostomy, the creation of a hole in the neck and windpipe that allows the patient to breathe.
    57. Smokers are at a significantly higher risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia; cancer of the nasal and paranasal sinus cavities; colorectal, kidney, liver, pancreatic, stomach or ovarian cancer; and cancer of the lower urinary tract (including the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis).
    58. Some studies have also demonstrated a link between tobacco smoking and an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly among heavy smokers and women who start smoking before their first pregnancy.
    59. Smoking is also known to increase the risk of cervical cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus.
    60. Smoking causes many eye diseases which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent vision loss.
    61. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to develop age-related macular degeneration, a condition that results in irreversible vision loss.
    62. Smokers also have a higher risk of cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens that blocks light. Cataracts cause vision impairment, and surgery is the only option to restore vision.
    63. Some evidence suggests that smoking also causes glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure in the eye and can damage eyesight.
    64. Adult smokers are more likely to suffer hearing loss.
    65. Lifelong tobacco smokers lose at least 10 years of life on average.
    66. With every puff of a cigarette, toxins and carcinogens are delivered to the body, at least 70 of the chemicals are known to cause cancer.
    67. The risk of developing diabetes is higher in smokers.
    68. Smoking is a risk factor for dementia, a group of disorders that result in mental decline.
    69. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, and an estimated 14% of Alzheimer’s cases globally can be attributed to smoking.
    70. Women who smoke are more likely to experience painful menstruation and more severe menopausal symptoms.
    71. Menopause occurs 1–4 years earlier in female smokers because smoking reduces the production of eggs in the ovaries, resulting in a loss of reproductive function and subsequent low estrogen levels.
    72. Tobacco smoke reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues.
    73. Tobacco use restricts blood flow which, if left untreated, can lead to gangrene (death of body tissue) and amputation of affected areas.
    74. Tobacco use increases the risk of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disease that wears away at the gums and destroys the jawbone, leading to tooth loss.
    75. Tobacco smokers are at significantly higher risk than non-smokers for post-surgical complications.
    76. Tobacco smokers are harder to wean off mechanical ventilation. This often lengthens their intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay, potentially exposing them to other infection.
    77. Smokers are likely to experience gastrointestinal disorders, such as stomach ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, associated with abdominal cramps, persistent diarrhea, fever and rectal bleeding, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
    78. Smokers are more likely to lose bone density, fracture more easily and experience serious complications, such as delayed healing or failure to heal.
    79. Components of tobacco smoke weaken the immune system, putting smokers at risk of pulmonary infections.
    80. Smokers with a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disorders are at an increased risk of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, bacterial meningitis, postsurgical infection, and cancers.
    81. Smoking also puts immune-compromised individuals, such as those living with cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis or cancer, at a higher risk of disease-related comorbidities and premature death.
    82. The immunosuppressive effects of tobacco put people living with HIV at an increased risk of developing AIDS. Among HIV-positive smokers, the average length of life lost is 12.3 years, more than double the number of years lost by HIV-positive non-smokers.
    83. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase the risk for fetal death.
    84. Women who smoke or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk of miscarriage.
    85. Stillbirths (the delivery of fetuses that have died in the womb) are also more common owing to fetal oxygen deprivation and placental abnormalities induced by carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke and by nicotine in tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco.
    86. Smokers are at higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, a potentially fatal complication for the mother in which the fertilized egg attaches outside the uterus.
    87. Smoking cessation and protection from exposure to second-hand smoke are especially important for women of reproductive age planning to become pregnant and during pregnancy.
    88. E-cigarettes pose significant risks to pregnant women who use them, as they can damage the growing fetus.
    89. Infants born to women who smoke, use smokeless tobacco, or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight.
    90. Governments and local authorities pay to clean up tobacco waste, not the tobacco companies themselves. Quit tobacco to protect the environment.
    91. Cigarette butts are among the most commonly discarded piece of waste globally and are the most frequent item of litter picked up on beaches and water edges worldwide.
    92. Hazardous substances have been identified in cigarette butts – including arsenic, lead, nicotine and formaldehyde. These substances are leached from discarded butts into aquatic environments and soil.
    93. Tobacco smoke can measurably contribute to air pollution levels in a city.
    94. Most cigarettes are lit using matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for example, one wooden match is used to light two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes smoked globally each year would require the destruction of about nine million trees to produce three trillion matches.
    95. E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products may contain batteries that require special disposal as well as chemicals, packaging and other non-biodegradable materials.
    96. Currently, the majority of plastic e-cigarette liquid cartridges are not reusable or recyclable – transnational companies tend to sell disposable ones, presumably to boost sales via repeat customers.
    97. Tobacco production emissions are estimated to equate 3 million transatlantic flights.
    98. Tobacco smoke contains three kinds of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides and pollutes indoor and outdoor environments.
    99. Worldwide, approximately 200 000 hectares are for tobacco agriculture and curing each year.
    100. Deforestation for tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
    101. Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemicals – including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. These chemicals may affect drinking water sources as a result of run-off from tobacco growing areas.
    102. For every 300 cigarettes produced (roughly 1.5 cartons), one tree is required to cure the tobacco leaf alone.
    103. With 6 trillion cigarettes manufactured annually, about 300 billion packages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) are made for tobacco products. Assuming each empty pack weighs about six grams, this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes of packaging waste, composed of paper, ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste from cartons and boxes used for distribution and packing brings the total annual solid post-consumption waste to at least 2 000 000 tonnes.
    104. Tobacco smoke leaves behind a toxic residue, known as thirdhand smoke, that sticks to surfaces (such as walls, floors, clothes, and furniture) and collects in house dust. This residue can persist for years without proper removal and exposure to it is harmful, especially for babies and children.

    Source : https://www.who.int

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  • Important contact numbers you should know in this COVID 19

    • कोरोना भाइरसका लक्षण भएका व्यक्तिले सोधपुछ गर्नको लागि
      हटलाइन : ११३३
      मोबाइल : ९८५१२५५८३९
    • कोरोना भाइरससँग लक्षण मिल्ने कुनै पनि स्वास्थ्य समस्या देखिए फोन गर्ने नम्बरहरू
      डा. श्रवण कुमार मिश्र ९८५१२६८२२०
      डा. रञ्जित शाह ९८७२७०१४६५
      राजेश कुमार गुप्ता ९८५१२३९९८८
      दिनेश थापा मगर ९८२३१६८५४०
      नरेश थापा मगर ९८०३१५२१४९
    • स्वास्थ्यमा जुनसुकै समस्या आईपरेपनि फोन गर्न मिल्ने नम्बर :
      डा.लोचन कार्की, फिजिसियन ९८५१०५६६८९
      डा. शिव प्रसाद श्रेष्ठ, बालरोग ९८५१०५७१९०
      डा.अनिल विक्रम कार्की, नाक कान घाँटी ९८०४२५९२८३
      डा.बद्रि रिजाल, हाडजोर्नी, ९८५११४८६९९
      डा. प्रकाश बुढाथोकी, दन्तरोग ९८४१३३६९४३
      डा. निरज कुमार सिह, फिजिसियन ९८४९२२८९०३
      डा. विश्वराज दबाडी, फेमिली फिजिशियन ९८४१२२६३२२
      डा. बिपेश आचार्य, प्याथोलोजिष्ट , ९८५१०७३४
      डा. लिजन महर्जन, नाक कान र घाटी ९८४११९०२५८
      डा.नन्द कुमारी गुरुङ, आखाँ ९८४७०३१४८६
      डा. प्रमोद जोशी, हाड जोर्नी ९८४१५२५६७०
      डा. रितेश थापा, मानसिक रोग, ९८४१५५६४१२
      डा. सञ्जिब तिवारी, फेमिली फिजिसियन, ९८५११६७७२२

    प्रदेश नम्बर १ का अस्पतालका नम्बर :

    भोजपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२९–४२०१८८
    धनकुटा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२६–५२०१३५
    इलाम जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२७–५२००३३
    मेची अञ्चल अस्पताल (झापा) ०२३–५२०१७२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल दिक्तेल (खोटाङ) ०३६–४२०५७६
    कोशी अञ्चल अस्पताल (मोरङ बिराटनगर) ०२१–५७०१०३ र ०२१–५३०१०३ र ९८५२०२१७४१
    ओखलढुङ्गा अस्पताल :९८५२८४१११६
    मनाङ अस्पताल : ०६६–४४०१९७ /९८६१२४२७८३/ ९८४१३६३६५५
    पाँचथर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२४–५२०१८८
    सङ्खुवासभा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२९–५६०१८८
    सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०३८–५२०१८८
    सुनसरी जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२५–५६०११९
    ताप्लेजुङ जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२४–४६०८७७
    तेह्रथुम जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२६–४६०१८८
    उदयपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०३५–४२०१८७

    प्रदेश नम्बर २ का अस्पतालका नम्बर:

    नारायणी उप–क्षेत्रिय अस्पताल (पर्सा) ०५१–५२१०५३
    बारा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ९८४३८७८८२५
    जनस्वास्थ्य कार्यालय रौतहट : ९८५२०२६८९२
    सर्लाही जिल्ला अस्पताल : ९८४४०३८७४९
    जिल्ला स्वास्थ्य अस्पताल सिरहा : ९८५२८३४८८१
    जनकपुर अञ्चल अस्पताल (धनुषा०)०४१–५२०९१८/९८४५४०९५०२
    सगरमाथा अञ्चल अस्पताल (सप्तरी) ९८१६०७७९८५ /०३१–५२०१२७
    महोत्तरी : जलेश्वर अस्पताल ९८४९४७६७९३, बर्दिबास अस्पताल ९८१५३९४२०३

    बाग्मती प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर :

    सिन्धुली जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४७–५२०१४५
    रामेछाप जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४८–४००११४
    दोलखा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४९–४००१११
    भक्तपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल ०१–६६१०७९८, ०१–६६१६०१०
    धादिङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०१०–५२०१३०
    धुलिखेल अस्पताल, काभ्रेपलान्चोक ०११–४९०४९७
    पाटन अस्पताल, ललितपुर ०१–५५२२२९५र०१–५५२२२७८ र ०१–५५२२२६६
    त्रिशुली अस्पताल, नुवाकोट ०१०–५६०२३१र ०१०–५६०१८८
    रसुवा अस्पताल, रसुवा ०१०–५४०२४५
    चौतारा अस्पताल, सिन्धुपाल्चोक ०११–६२०१०३, ०११–६२०३४४
    भरतपुर अस्पताल, चितवन ०५६–५२०१११, ०५६–५२४३००, ०५६–५२४०९०
    हेटौडा अस्पताल, मकवानपुर ०५७–५२०३०५
    काठमाडौंका अस्पताल
    त्रि। वि। शिक्षण अस्पताल ०१–४४१२३०३र०१–४४१२५०५, ०१–४४१२६०५
    वीर अस्पताल ०१–४२२१११९
    निजामति कर्मचारी अस्पताल ०१–४१०७०००
    श्री वीरेन्द्र अस्पताल ०१–४२७१९४१
    शुक्रराज ट्रपिकल तथा सरुवा रोग अस्पताल ०१–४२५३३३९६
    नेपाल सशस्त्र प्रहरी बल अस्पताल ०१–४२७०५५३

    गण्डकी प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    बागलुङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६८–५२०२८८ र ०६८५२०१८८
    पर्वत जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६७–४२०११९ र ९८५७६२१११९
    कास्कीका अस्पताल ०६१–५२०४६१ र ०६१–५२०३९०
    तनहुँ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६५–५६०२०३ र ०६५–४१४३७७
    गोरखा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६४–४२०९१८
    लमजुङका अस्पताल ९८५६०४६११९ र ०६६–५२०११९
    मनाङ अस्पताल ०६६–४४०१९७ र ९८६१२४२७८३ र ९८४१३६३६५५
    मुस्ताङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६९–४४०२९१ र ९८५७६४९५५५ र ९८४६७२३०८१र ९८६७३०९४१६
    म्याग्दी जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६९–५२०५२५र ९८५७६२३१८८ र ९८५६०५९७०१
    नवलपुर अस्पताल ०७८–५४०५३१
    स्याङजा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६३–४२०२३९ र ९८४००७१२८४

    लुम्बिनी प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    कपिलवस्तु जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७६–५६०२००
    नवलपरासी अस्पताल ०७८–५८०४०४
    अर्घाखाँची जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७७–४२०२५७
    गुल्मी जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७९–५२००५०
    पाल्पा अस्पताल ०७५–५२०१५४
    मिसन अस्पताल ०७५२०१११
    लुम्बिनी मेडिकल कलेज :०७५४११२०१
    राप्ती उपक्षत्रीय अस्पताल दाङ ०८२–५६२३६५
    प्युठान जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८६–४६००५६
    रोल्पा अस्पताल ९८४९४०२५१९, ९८५७८२२१९७
    पूर्वी रूकुम जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–४१३१४५
    भेरी अञ्चल अस्पताल, नेपालगञ्ज बाँके ०८१–५२०१२०
    बर्दिया जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८४–४२११७७
    रुपन्देही, भिम अस्पताल ९८१२४८८७४९
    लुम्बिनी प्रादेशिक अस्पताल ०७१–५४०२००

    कर्णाली प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    जुम्ला जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–५२०३५५
    हुम्ला जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–६८०१२०
    कालिकोट जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–४४०१३३
    मुगु जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–४६०१६१
    डोल्पा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–५५०११० र ९८४८१४०३६३
    सल्यान जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–५२००६१
    रुकुम जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–५३०११५
    दैलेख जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८९–४२०१२७
    जाजरकोट जिल्ला स्वास्थ्य कार्यालय ०८९–४३०१२०
    सुर्खेत क्षेत्रीय अस्पताल ०८३–५२०२००

    सुदुरपश्चिम प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बरहरु

    जिल्ला अस्पताल अछाम ०९७–६२०१८८, ९७–६२५०६२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बैतडी ०९५–५२०५१४
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बझाङ ०९२–४२१०१८
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बाजुरा ०९७–५४१०१३
    उप–क्षेत्रीय अस्पताल डडेल्धुरा ०९६–४१०२५४,
    चिरीन्जोबी अस्पताल ०९६–४२०७८०,
    जोगबुढा अस्पताल ०९६–४११००८
    जिल्ला अस्पताल दार्चुला ०९३–४२०१८८, ९८४८८९६७२०
    गोकुलेश्वर अस्पताल ९३–४०००८८,९८४८९०४८१९, ९८६५६७०८८२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल डोटी ०९४–४२०११४
    सेती अञ्चल अस्पताल, कैलाली ०९१–५२१२७१,
    टिकापुर अस्पताल ०९१–५६०१५०,
    घोडाघोडी अस्पताल ०९१–४०३१०७
    महाकाली अञ्चल अस्पताल, कञ्चनपुर ०९९–५२११११

    Date : 1st May 2021

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  • Impact of Vitamins on Immune Function in COVID-19 Patients

    The whole world is dealing with COVID-19 in the absence of effective treatments, attention has focused on modalities that may help boost the immune system. A recent review examined the possible role of nutrition or diet components in COVID-19.

    Patients infected with SAR-CoV-2 who are vitamin D–deficient do not fare as well as those who are vitamin D–replete, which has led investigators to consider the possible immunomodulatory role of vitamin D. Vitamin D’s potential benefit stems from its ability to stimulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides, which help maintain the integrity of epithelial tight junctions; enhancement of the expression of antioxidant genes leading to a reduction in inflammation; promotion of macrophage and superoxide production; phagocytosis; suppression of T-helper type-1 activity; reduction of proinflammatory cytokine production; enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines; and stimulation of suppressive regulatory T-cells.

    Vitamin D deficiency has also been implicated in comorbid disease states that are risk factors for the coronavirus infection as well as in advanced age, which has been associated with a poorer outcome from COVID-19. Adequate vitamin D levels may be inversely correlated with C-reactive protein expression, a marker of inflammation, and with a decreased risk of coagulopathy and immunosuppression. Protein targets on SARS-CoV-2 may be regulated by vitamin D. While not yet proven effective in COVID-19, vitamin D use has been associated with a reduction in the incidence and severity of other viral infections and may reduce proinflammatory cytokines, which are associated with more severe disease and increased mortality in COVID-19.

    Vitamin C, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, has antioxidant activities and deficiencies are associated with disturbances in the balance between antioxidant activity and oxidant generation. Vitamin C supplementation may be preventive against viral infections and may reduce their duration and severity. It reduces proinflammatory cytokines, which are activated in COVID-19 and may play a role in cytokine storm; enhances anti-inflammatory cytokines; reduces TNF-alpha levels, a proinflammatory cytokine that may facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells; and increases IL-10 levels, which in turn reduces inflammation. Vitamin C has a role in sepsis secondary to pneumonia, and COVID-19 patients are at a higher risk of developing pneumonia.

    Zinc, a key trace mineral, is thought to have immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. Adverse physiological effects associated with zinc deficiency include an increase in proinflammatory cytokines; remodeling of lung tissue; changes to the cell-barrier function in lung epithelial tissue; reduction in lymphocyte counts; and impairment of lymphocyte function. Zinc interferes with viral synthesis and replication, including that of coronaviruses. In COVID-19, zinc supplementation may reduce symptoms, such as lower respiratory tract infection, by inhibiting viral uncoating, binding, and replication.

    Omega-3-fatty acids have been found to have antiviral properties against influenza. Their role in COVID-19 remains controversial with both improvement in oxygenation observed and increased susceptibility to oxidative membrane damage.

    Other compounds that may have immunomodulatory effects in COVID-19 include vitamin E, selenium, magnesium, and vitamin A; however, more research is needed in this area.

    While information involving COVID-19 is still evolving, understanding the potential mechanisms by which vitamins and supplements may be beneficial in COVID-19 will help pharmacists educate patients about their proper use.

    The content contained in this article is for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice. Reliance on any information provided in this article is solely at your own risk.
    Reference : uspharmacist.com

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  • Tuberculosis (TB)

    Tuberculosis is a contagious infection that usually attacks our lungs. It is caused by infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb). Tb can be fatal ,but in many cases , it is preventable as well as treatable. It can develop when bacteria spread through droplets in the air.

    Globally , Tuberculosis is a major public health problem.Despite the long history of tuberculosis prevention efforts ,it still ranks among the top ten causes of death in Nepal.In the 20th century Tb was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today,most cases are cured with the help of Antibiotics.But it requires a long time .We need to take medication for at least 6 to 9 months .There are two types of Tuberculosis.
    1. Latent Tuberculosis
    2. Active Tuberculosis:

    Latent Tuberculosis:
    You don’t have any symptoms ,but the infection is still alive and can one day become active.You have the germs in your body ,but your immune system keeps them from spreading.If you are at high risk for re-activation for instance ,if you have HIV, you had an infection in past 2years ,your chest X-ray is unusual or your immune system is weakened your doctor will give you medication to prevent.

    Active Tuberculosis:
    The germs multiply and make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of active cases in adults come from a latent TB infection.
    A latent or active TB infection can also be drug-resistant, meaning certain medications don’t work against the bacteria.

    Latent TB doesn’t have symptoms. A skin or blood test can tell if you have it.
    General Symptoms :

    • A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks
    • Chest pain
    • Coughing up blood
    • Feeling tired all the time
    • Night sweats
    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss

    TB Prevention – Precautions, masks & vaccines:
    Firstly there is a need to stop the transmission of TB from one adult to another.
    This is done through firstly, identifying people with active TB, and then curing them through the provision of drug treatment. With proper TB treatment someone with TB will very quickly not be infectious and so can no longer spread TB to others
    If someone is not on treatment, then precautions such as cough etiquette, must be taken to prevent TB spreading from one adult to another.

    Anything which increases the number of people infected by each infectious person, such as ineffective treatment because of drug resistant TB, reduces the overall effect of the main TB prevention efforts. The presence of TB and HIV infection together also increases the number of people infected by each infectious person. As a result it is then more likely that globally the number of people developing active TB will increase rather than decrease.

    Other TB prevention activities:

    There are several other TB prevention activities. This includes preventing people with latent TB from developing active, and infectious, TB disease.
    TB infection control including the use of masks & respirators, which means preventing the transmission of TB in such settings as hospitals & prisons.
    The pasteurization of milk also helps to prevent humans from getting bovine TB.
    There is a vaccine for TB, but it makes only a small contribution to TB prevention. It does little to interrupt the transmission of TB among adults.

    TB Prevention – the BCG vaccine:
    The vaccine called Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was first developed in the 1920s. It is one of the most widely used of all current vaccines, and it reaches more than 80% of all newborn children and infants in countries where it is part of the national childhood immunization programme.2 However, it is also one of the most variable vaccines in routine use.
    The BCG vaccine has been shown to provide children with excellent protection against the disseminated forms of TB. However protection against pulmonary TB in adults is variable. Since most transmission originates from adult cases of pulmonary TB, the BCG vaccine is generally used to protect children, rather than to interrupt transmission among adults.
    The BCG vaccine will often result in the person vaccinated having a positive result to a TB skin test.

    TB education:
    TB education is necessary for people with TB. People with TB need to know how to take their TB drugs properly. They also need to know how to make sure that they do not pass TB on to other people. But TB education is also necessary for the general public. The public needs to know basic information about TB for a number of reasons including reducing the stigma still associated with TB.

    TB treatment as TB prevention:
    TB drug treatment for the prevention of TB, also known as chemoprophylaxis, can reduce the risk of a first episode of active TB occurring in people with latent TB. The treatment of latent TB is being used as a tool to try and eliminate TB in the United States.
    Isoniazid is one of the drugs used to prevent latent TB from progressing to active TB or TB disease. Isoniazid is a cheap drug, but in a similar way to the use of the BCG vaccine, it is mainly used to protect individuals rather than to interrupt transmission between adults. This is because children rarely have infectious TB, and it is hard to administer isoniazid on a large scale to adults who do not have any symptoms. Taking isoniazid daily for six months is difficult in respect of adherence, and as a result many individuals who could benefit from the treatment, stop taking the drug before the end of the six month period.
    There have also been concerns about the possible impact of TB treatment for prevention programmes on the emergence of drug resistance. However, a review of the scientific evidence has now shown that there is no need for this to be a concern. The benefit of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV, and who have, or may have had latent TB, has also recently been emphasized.

    National Tuberculosis Program : Bhaktapur
    The National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is fully integrated within the general primary health care system of the Government of Nepal. The National Tuberculosis Control Centre (NTCC) is the focal point of the NTP. It is responsible for formulating program policies, strategy and planning.
    Central laboratory at the NTCC is the focal point for the NTP laboratory network, which is responsible for policy and guideline development, training, quality control and supervision. Technical support, monitoring and evaluation, training, supervision, logistics, health education, communication, and research are key functions of NTCC.
    Furthermore, quantification and procurement and supply of anti-tuberculosis drugs are key responsibilities of the NTCC. The NTCC is procuring both first and second line anti TB drugs for the TB patients from Global Drug Facility (GDF). Drugs are distributed through the system of Logistics Management Division of the Department of Health Services. NTCC has also established a Program Management Unit (PMU) at the central level for overall management of the Global Fund grants and provides technical inputs to formulate policies, program, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for the program.
    At the Regional level, NTP activities are planned and carried out in coordination and cooperation with the Regional Health Directorate. The Regional Tuberculosis Centre (RTC) in Pokhara provides technical support to TB control activities in the Western Region in coordination with NTCC. There are full time permanent Regional TB Leprosy Officers (RTLO) appointed in each region. Regional levels are responsible for program implementation within the regions. In addition, the regional office is responsible for training, monitoring & evaluation and supervision of program activities. Regional office also provides logistical support, supply of TB drugs and other requirements through Regional Logistic Management Division.

    World Tuberculosis Day was marked here today with the theme ‘Wanted: leaders for a TB-free world’.
    “It is an effort to end TB” said Dr Kedar Narsingh KC, director at National Tuberculosis Center.
    To meet the Sustainable Development Goals, Nepal has to eradicate TB by 2030, however, increasing cases of multidrug resistant TB have turned out to be a major hurdle in achieving SDGS.
    Health practitioners themselves are suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. It is estimated that there are 1,000 MDR-TB cases in the country. From among 1,000 patients only 400 are receiving treatment through DOTS centres under the National Tuberculosis Programme, according to Dr KC.
    Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications. “The tendency of TB patients dropping out of treatment is increasing as the treatment course spans over 24 months. Irregular medication among TB patients leads to resistance to first-line anti-TB medications. These patients are ultimately diagnosed with MDR-TB,” said Dr KC.
    The World Health Organisation estimates that there were 600,000 new cases with resistance to rifampicin, the most effective first-line drug, of which 490,000 had MDR-TB. Along with the multi-drug resistant patients there are at least 11,000 to 13,000 patients who are not seeking any treatment. It is estimated that some 45,000 new cases of tuberculosis are added each year. As per National Tuberculosis Centre, in 2016/17, a total of 31,764 cases were registered under National Tuberculosis Programme.

    Anti-Tuberculosis Association(NATA) : Kalimati
    Nepal Anti Tuberculosis Association (NATA) is a non-governmental, non-profit making social voluntary organization established in 1953 A.D. with a view to promoting tuberculosis control programs through raising public awareness and adopting preventive and curative measures.
    NATA is registered with the District Administration Office in Kathmandu. NATA is affiliated to International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Social Welfare Council (SWC), Nepal. It is also one of the prominent members of the South East Asian Region (SEAR).
    NATA has a long history of close coordination and collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP), ministry of health as one of the oldest key partners. NATA has been playing an active role in controlling TB to the best of its capacity by expanding and making its preventive and curative services more effective in line with national policies and strategies through mobilization of its 35 district branches and active volunteers in close coordination and co-operation with various local, national and international organizations.
    To help the patients of Tuberculosis and Lungs disease in all possible ways
    To generate public awareness about the menace of TB and other diseases like Lungs, HIV, etc. through various awareness raising campaigns.
    To study the problems of TB in Nepal and adopt various measures (preventive and curative) for the control of diseases.
    To make curative service accessible and affordable to marginalized, underprivileged and unreached population affected by TB ensuring the quality of service
    To conduct study and research activities on scientific and social aspects of TB
    To support National Tuberculosis Control Program to fight against Tuberculosis in Nepal
    To seek friendly cooperation and mutual exchange of ideas among various institutions, associations and organizations devoted to anti-TB work all over the world.
    To provide all types of curative facilities for the treatment of tuberculosis and other lungs related diseases.


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  • लकडाउन छ, घरैमा औषधि चाहियो ? अनलाइन औषधिलाई सम्पर्क गर्नुस्

    लकडाउन छ । घरमा औषधि चाहिएको छ । यो समयमा सबैको सहयोगी बनेको छ । अनलाइन औषधि ।

    फोन गरेर, इमेल गरेर वा म्यासेज पठाएर यी सबै कार्य गर्न सकिन्छ । अनलाइन औषधिका प्रतिनिधि घरैमा आइपुग्छन् ।

    हाल यसरी घरैमा औषधि उपलब्ध गराउने धेरै अनलाइन सुविधा उपलब्ध छन् । तर अनलाइन अ‍ैषधि भने यसरी सेवा उपलब्ध गराउने पहिलो संस्था भएको यसका सञ्चालक सञ्जिव सिंह बताउँछन् । अनलाइन औषधि नेपालकै पहिलो अनलाइन फार्मेसी सिष्टम भएको उनको दावी छ ।

    अनलाइन औषधिले यो भन्दा पहिले २०७२ सालको महाभूकम्पको समयमा पनि यसरी नै सेवा उपलब्ध गराएको थियो ।

    यो कार्यमा सञ्जिव र उनकी बहिनी सबी सिंहको आइडियाले भूमिका खेलेको छ । उनीहरुले राजधानीको कालिमाटीस्थित एसएम फर्मा समेत सञ्चालन गरिरहेका छन् । सो फर्मा कालिमाटी क्षेत्रमा पहिले देखि नै प्रचलित लोकप्रिय औषधि पसल हो । उनीहरुले त्यही फर्मालाई अहिले अलि फरक तरिकाले चलाएका हुन् ।

    पहिले देखि नै प्रचलित औषधि पसलमार्फत औषधि उनीहरुले अहिले ग्राहकको घरैमा पु-याइरहेका छन् ।अनलाइन औषधिले अन्य फार्मेसीले जस्तै विरामीलाई औषधि उपलब्ध गराउने भए पनि यसको प्रक्रिया मात्र फरक भएको बताइएको छ । सञ्जिव भन्छन् ‘हामीले विरामीको घर वा अफिसमै औषधि पु¥याइदिन्छौ । यसका लागि फार्मेसी सम्म पुग्नु पर्दैन ।’

    अनलाइन औषधिको यात्रा सामान्य रुपमा प्रारम्भ भएको थियो । बी.इ.आई.टी पढ्दै गर्दा सञ्जीवले कलेजमा एउटा प्रोजेक्ट बुझाउनुपर्ने थियो, सूचना(प्रविधिमा आफ्नो दक्षता प्रदर्शन गर्न । उनले छानेको प्रोजेक्टले सबै जना आश्चर्यमा परे ।

    ‘मैले यस्तो सफ्टवेयर बनाएँ, जसको प्रयोगले औषधी पसलको स्टक व्यवस्थापन गर्न सकिन्छ’, उनले भने, ‘औषधी पसलमा थुप्रै औषधी हुन्छन्, कुन चाहिँको मिति सकियो र कुनको स्टक सकियो हेरिरहन निकै गाह्रो हुन्छ ।’

    उनले बनाएको सफ्टवेयरले यो सबै समस्या केही हदसम्म समाधान गरिदिएको थियो ।

    उनीहरूका बुवा सूर्यमान सिंहको केही वर्षअघि निधन हुँदा उनीहरूको औषधि पसल ‘अटो पाइलट’ मा गइसकेको थियो । औषधिका थोक बिक्रेताले सबै सामान आफैं ल्याइदिन्थे । पसल चलाउँन खासै मिहिनेत नलाग्ने भइसकेको थियो । कलेज सकेर सबी भने स्वास्थ्य सेवा विभागमा काम गर्न थालिसकेकी थिइन् ।

    सञ्जीव भने एउटा आइटी कम्पनीमा संलग्न थिए । अनलाइन औषधी पसलको आइडिया भने उनीहरूलाई निकै पछि मात्रै आएको थियो ।

    अनलाइन औषधिमार्फत औषधि अर्डर गर्नका लागि विभिन्न बिकल्प उपलब्ध छन् । प्रविधिका अन्य माध्यम उपयोग गर्न नजाने पनि सामान्य रुपमा फोन गरेकै भरमा पनि औषधि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ ।

    ‘एकदिन अफिसका साथीहरूसँग कुरा गर्दै गर्दा मैले आफूले पहिले औषधी पसल व्यवस्थापन गर्ने सफ्टवेयर बनाएको कुरा गर्दै थिएँ’, उनी भन्छन्( ‘त्यत्तिकैमा एक जना साथीले सोधे, ‘अनलाइन औषधी पसल किन नखोल्ने त ?’

    धेरै समय अनलाइन औषधी पसलको कुरा उनको दिमागमा चलिरह्यो । केही दिनपछि उनले यो विषयमा बहिनी सबीसँग कुरा गरे । सबीले तुरून्तै सकारात्मक प्रतिक्रिया दिइन् ।

    ‘हामीले काम सुरू गर्दा काठमाडौंमा अनलाइन व्यापार निकै फस्टाएको थियो । इलेक्ट्रोनिक्स र लुगा अनलाइन किन्न पाइन्छ, तर औषधी किन किन्न पाइन्न रु’, यो सोच जन्मिँदाको समय सम्झन्छिन् उनी ।

    छिटै सबै तारतम्य मिल्दै गयो र कामले गति लियो । उनीहरूले आफ्नो बलिया पक्षहरूको बारेमा बल्ल जानकारी पाए । उनीहरूसँग नेपालभर फैलिएको औषधी व्यवसायको सञ्जालमा पहुँच थियो र त्यसको प्रयोग गरेर सबैजसो औषधी मगाउन सकिन्थ्यो, त्यो पनि निकै छोटो समयमा । सञ्जीवले नयाँ कम्पनीका लागि सफ्टवेयर बनाए ।

    केही महिनाभित्रै दुवै जना मिलेर नयाँ कम्पनी दर्ता गरे, घर-घर औषधि ‘डेलिभरी’ गर्ने ।

    त्यसपछि यसले औषधि डेलिभरी गर्ने काम गरिरहेको छ । तर यसरी औषधि पु¥याउने काम मात्र अनलाइन औषधिले गर्दैन । यसका साथै विरामीको सम्पूर्ण रेकर्ड राखेर बीचमा समेत औषधिका लागि सम्झाउने र झक्झक्याउने काम समेत गर्छ । अनलाइन औषधिले ग्राहकको सबै प्रेस्क्रिप्सन रेकर्ड राख्ने र पुरै ट्रिटमेन्ट हिस्ट्री नै हेर्न मिल्ने गरी राख्छ । यसको अर्थ कुनै पनि ग्राहकको हेल्थ बायोडाटा तयार गरेर राख्छ । यसका आधारमा ग्राहकको सम्पूर्ण विवरण कुनै पनि समयमा हेर्न सकिन्छ ।

    विरामीको औषधि सकिने समय भयो भने पहिले नै कल गरेर सम्झाउने काम पनि अनलाइन औषधिले गर्छ । त्यसैगरी उनीहरुका लागि आवश्यक औषधि कमसेकम तीन महिनाका लागि पुग्ने गरी स्टक समेत राख्ने गर्छ ।

    ग्राहकका लागि यी वाहेक अन्य विभिन्न जानकारीमूलक सामग्री समेत अनलाइन औषधिले उपलब्ध गराउदै आएको छ । उनीहरुको स्वस्थ जीवनका लागि विभिन्न टिप्सहरु उपलब्ध गराउने उद्देश्यले ब्लग साइट नै उपलब्ध गराएको छ । यहाँ स्वास्थ्यका लागि आवश्यक टिप्सहरु अध्ययन गर्न र व्यवहारमा लागू गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी वेबपोर्टल https://www.onlineaushadhi.com/ मार्फत विभिन्न औषधिहरुको विस्तृत विवरण थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । यसमा ३० हजार भन्दा बढी औषधिको वारेमा जानकारी लिनुका साथै अन्य हेल्थ इक्विपमेन्टको वारेमा समेत थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ ।

    यसको फेसबुक पेज https://www.facebook.com/healthtips.onlineaushadhi/ मार्फत पनि धेरै कुरा थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ ।

    अनलाइन औषधिमार्फत औषधि अर्डर गर्नका लागि विभिन्न बिकल्प उपलब्ध छन् । प्रविधिका अन्य माध्यम उपयोग गर्न नजाने पनि सामान्य रुपमा फोन गरेकै भरमा पनि औषधि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ । यसका लागि ९८४१५६८५६८ मा कल गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी फेसबुक म्यासेन्जर, भाइबर र ह्वाट्सएपमा म्यासेज गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी इमेलमार्फत पनि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ ।

    Source : https://nepalauto.com/online-ausadhi-for-home-delivery-of-medicine

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  • Few facts on corona virus (COVID-19)

    What is a novel coronavirus?
    A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. It is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

    What is the difference between the coronavirus and the influenza virus?
    The speed of transmission is an important point of difference between the two viruses. Influenza has a shorter median incubation period (the time from infection to appearance of symptoms) and a shorter serial interval (the time between successive cases) than COVID-19 virus. The serial interval for COVID-19 virus is estimated to be 5-6 days, while for influenza virus, the serial interval is 3 days. This means that influenza can spread faster than COVID-19.

    Further, transmission in the first 3-5 days of illness, or potentially pre-symptomatic transmission –transmission of the virus before the appearance of symptoms – is a major driver of transmission for influenza. In contrast, while we are learning that there are people who can shed COVID-19 virus 24-48 hours prior to symptom onset, at present, this does not appear to be a major driver of transmission.

    How does the coronavirus disease spread ?
    People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth which are spread when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. People can also catch COVID-19 if they breathe in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets. This is why it is important to stay more than 1 meter (3 feet) away from a person who is sick.

    Can patients with suspected and confirmed nCoV infection be cohorted in the same room ?
    Ideally, suspected and confirmed 2019-nCoV acure respiratory disease patients should be isolated in single rooms. However, when this is not feasible (e.g., limited number of single rooms), cohorting is an acceptable option. Some patients with suspected 2019-nCoV infection may actually have other respiratory illnesses, hence they must be cohorted separately from patients with confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. A minimum of 1-meter distance between beds should be maintained at all times

    What precautions should I take while travelling during the coronavirus disease outbreak ?
    Recommendations for international travellers. Perform hand hygiene frequently, particularly after contact with respiratory secretions. Hand hygiene includes either cleaning hands with soap and water or with an alcohol-based hand rub. Alcohol-based hand rubs are preferred if hands are not visibly soiled; wash hands with soap and water when they are visibly soiled; Cover your nose and mouth with a flexed elbow or paper tissue when coughing or sneezing and disposing immediately of the tissue and performing hand hygiene; Refrain from touching mouth and nose; A medical mask is not required if exhibiting no symptoms, as there is no evidence that wearing a mask – of any type – protects non-sick persons. However, in some cultures, masks may be commonly worn. If masks are to be worn, it is critical to follow best practices on how to wear, remove and dispose of them and on hand hygiene after removal

    As for any travel, travellers are also advised to follow proper food hygiene practices, including the five keys for food safety, as well as recommendations to reduce the risk of transmission of emerging pathogens from animals to human in live markets.

    What should I do in the case of a coronavirus outbreak ?
    Get the facts from reliable sources to help you accurately determine your risks so that you can take reasonable precautions. Seek guidance from WHO, your healthcare provider, your national public health authority or your employer for accurate information on COVID-19 and whether COVID-19 is circulating where you live. It is important to be informed of the situation and take appropriate measures to protect yourself and your family.

    You need to take the risk of infection seriously. Follow the advice of WHO and guidance issued by national and local health authorities. For most people, COVID-19 infection will cause mild illness however, it can make some people very ill and, in some people, it can be fatal. Older people, and those with pre-existing medical conditions (such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease or diabetes) are at risk for severe disease.

    What happens when you get the coronavirus disease ?
    People with COVID-19 generally develop signs and symptoms, including mild respiratory symptoms and fever, on an average of 5-6 days after infection (mean incubation period 5-6 days, range 1-14 days). Most people infected with COVID-19 virus have mild disease and recover

    Can you contract the coronavirus disease by touching a surface ?
    People could catch COVID-19 by touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching their eyes, nose or mouth.

    Are smokers more vulnerable to the coronavirus disease ?
    Smokers are likely to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 as the act of smoking means that fingers (and possibly contaminated cigarettes) are in contact with lips which increases the possibility of transmission of virus from hand to mouth. Smokers may also already have lung disease or reduced lung capacity which would greatly increase risk of serious illness. Smoking products such as water pipes often involve the sharing of mouth pieces and hoses, which could facilitate the transmission of COVID-19 in communal and social settings.

    What is the recovery time for the coronavirus disease ?
    Using available preliminary data, the median time from onset to clinical recovery for mild cases is approximately 2 weeks and is 3-6 weeks for patients with severe or critical disease.

    Is the coronavirus disease the same as SARS ?
    No. The virus that causes COVID-19 and the one that caused the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 are related to each other genetically, but the diseases they cause are quite different.

    Can the coronavirus disease spread through food ?
    Current evidence on other coronavirus strains shows that while coronaviruses appear to be stable at low and freezing temperatures for a certain period, food hygiene and good food safety practices can prevent their transmission through food.

    Is headache a symptom of the coronavirus disease ?
    The virus can cause a range of symptoms, from ranging from mild illness to pneumonia. Symptoms of the disease are fever, cough, sore throat and headaches.

    Is diarrhea a symptom of the coronavirus disease ?
    The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and don’t feel unwell.

    Can antibiotics treat the coronavirus disease ?
    No, antibiotics do not work against viruses. The 2019-nCOV is a virus and, therefore, antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment.

    Who is at risk for coronavirus ?
    The virus that causes COVID-19 infects people of all ages. However, evidence to date suggests that two groups of people are at a higher risk of getting severe COVID-19 disease. These are older people (that is people over 60 years old); and those with underlying medical conditions (such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer). The risk of severe disease gradually increases with age starting from around 40 years. It’s important that adults in this age range protect themselves and in turn protect others that may be more vulnerable.

    WHO has issued advice for these two groups and for community support to ensure that they are protected from COVID-19 without being isolated, stigmatized, left in a position of increased vulnerability or unable to access basic provisions and social care.

    How long does the coronavirus last on surfaces ?
    It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces, but it seems to behave like other coronaviruses. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days.

    Can babies get the coronavirus disease ?
    We know it is possible for people of any age to be infected with the virus, but so far there are relatively few cases of COVID-19 reported among children.

    Can coronavirus spread through mosquito bite ?
    To date there has been no information nor evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted by mosquitoes. The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Also, avoid close contact with anyone who is coughing and sneezing.

    Are masks effective against the coronavirus disease ?
    If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected 2019-nCoV infection. Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing. Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly.

    What is the incubation period of the coronavirus disease ?
    The “incubation period” means the time between catching the virus and beginning to have symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for COVID-19 range from 1-14 days, most commonly around five days. These estimates will be updated as more data become available.

    Can cold weather and snow prevent the coronavirus disease ?
    Cold weather and snow CANNOT kill the new coronavirus.
    There is no reason to believe that cold weather can kill the new coronavirus or other diseases.

    Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted in hot or humid climates ?
    From the evidence so far, the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS, including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate, adopt protective measures if you live in, or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.

    Does chlorine kill Coronavirus ?
    Weak chlorine solution (0.05%) can be used to disinfect hands when there is no alcohol based hand rub (ABHR) or soap. However, weak chlorine solutions are not recommended when alcohol based hand rub or soap and water are available as there is a higher risk of hand irritation and ill health effects from making and diluting chlorine solutions. Further chlorine solutions must be made daily, stored in a cool dry place with a lid away from sunlight, otherwise they have the potential to lose potency and efficacy at disinfection. Chlorine is effective as a decontamination (at 0.5%) for environmental cleaning when preceded by cleaning with soap and water.

    What is the treatment for the coronavirus disease ?
    No pharmaceutical products have yet been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of COVID-19. However, a number of medicines have been suggested as potential investigational therapies, many of which are now being or will soon be studied in clinical trials, including the SOLIDARITY trial co-sponsored by WHO and participating countries.

    In many countries, doctors are giving COVID-19 patients medicines that have not been approved for this disease. The use of licensed medicines for indications that have not been approved by a national medicines regulatory authority is considered “off-label” use. The prescription of medicines for off-label use by doctors may be subject to national laws and regulations.

    Is there a vaccine for the coronavirus disease ?
    When a disease is new, there is no vaccine until one is developed. It can take a number of years for a new vaccine to be developed.

    How to dispose of waste from coronavirus patients ?
    No. Waste produced during the health care or home care of patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV infection should be disposed of as infectious waste. For more information on disposing of infectious waste, please click here. Or visit CDC website here

    How to disinfect houses of COVID-19 patients ?
    Environmental cleaning in healthcare facilities or homes housing patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV infection should use disinfectants that are active against enveloped viruses, such as 2019-nCoV and other coronaviruses. There are many disinfectants, including commonly used hospital disinfectants, that are active against enveloped viruses. Currently WHO recommendations include the use of:

    • 70% Ethyl alcohol to disinfect reusable dedicated equipment (e.g., thermometers) between uses
    • Sodium hypochlorite at 0.5% (equivalent 5000ppm) for disinfection of frequently touched surfaces in homes or healthcare facilities

    Source : https://www.who.int/

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  • A coverage on our CEO Sabi Singh published in New Business Age Magazine

    Born and brought up in a family with a pharmaceutical business background, Sabi Singh is continuing the same business legacy but in a different way–by running an online pharmacy. The concept of an e-pharmacy service was new in the health sector when Singh jointly started Online Ausadhi Pvt Ltd with her brother, Sanjeev Singh, in 2016. In fact, the service was the first of its kind in the country.

    After the completion of her Bachelor’s in Public Health, Singh strived to find a solution for the problem by starting Online Ausadhi.

    As a woman entrepreneur, doing business in the healthcare sector was both a challenge as well as an opportunity for her. According to her, many people did not believe in her in the beginning. “Whenever we say women entrepreneur, generally people perceive it means women engaging in handicraft, jewellery or food business,” she shares.

    Singh has found drastic changes in the public perception of women entrepreneurship and even startups recently. Today, even capital investors are encouraging and supporting many potential entrepreneurs and start-up companies. “There were only two women, including me and my female staff, among 30 businessmen in one presentation programme for pitching in front of investors,” she recalls. While other businessmen were asked routine questions, she encountered multiple cross-questions. Though the scenario has been changing for women entrepreneurs, she says people are still sceptical about it. Today, Singh is trying to pitch her business ideas to expand her business. With the positive responses from her clients and support from her family, she is diversifying her online business from medicine to baby products, ‘physiotherapy at home’ and ‘doctor at home’ services.

    Source : https://www.newbusinessage.com/MagazineArticles/view/2744

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  • Cough and Cold Remedies for Babies and Toddlers

    The over-the-counter (OTC) drugs for a cough or cold for babies or toddlers is not recommended. Cough and cold medicines that are safe for grownups can cause serious side effects, even life-threatening ones in children under age 2.

    If your baby or toddler is sniffling or coughing, try these methods. They’re all drug-free and safe:

    Try Saline Drops:
    When your child’s nose is stuffy, she may have trouble breathing, sleeping, and eating. Saline nasal drops can thin the mucus in her nose and shrink swollen airways. Use them two or three times per day; any more often could make her nose sore.
    Saline drops may make it easier to remove mucus from your child’s nose. For babies, try a suction bulb. If your toddler can blow her nose with your help, give that a try.

    Increase Fluids
    When your child isn’t feeling well, give more drinks than usual. Extra fluids can thin out her mucus so her nose won’t be as stuffy and she’ll cough up all that gunk more easily.
    Most drinks, like water, juice, and milk, are fine. Warm liquids like chicken soup, apple cider, or hot chocolate can soothe a sore throat. Be sure they’re warm, not hot, to avoid burns.
    Babies under 6 months should only drink breast milk or formula, not water or juice. But you may offer more milk than usual for coughs or colds.

    Give a Little Honey
    It soothes sore throats and eases coughs. It may even work better for children than OTC cough medicines. Give your child 1/2 teaspoon of honey before bedtime. But never give it to a child less than a year old. It can make them very ill.

    Raise Baby’s Head
    Sleeping with extra pillows will ease to breathe more easily when your baby have a stuffy nose . Simply place a pillow or folded towel under the head of your baby’s mattress to create a slight angle. This will raise her head safely and help her to breathe.

    Use a Humidifier
    Moisture in the air makes it easier to breathe, so run a humidifier in your child’s bedroom at night. Cool-mist models are safer than those that produce steam.

    Hot shower
    Put your baby to your bathroom with hot shower open for few minutes. Moisture in the air makes your baby easier to breathe

    Lower Fevers
    Some colds and coughs come with a slight fever. If your baby or toddler has a fever, follow these steps:

    • Babies under 1 month: Call your pediatrician. Fever isn’t normal.
    • Babies under 3 months: Call the doctor for advice.
    • Babies 3 to 6 months: Give paracetamol every 4 to 6 hours as needed.
    • Babies 6 months or older and toddlers: Give paracetamol every 4 to 6 hours or ibuprofen every 6 to 8 hours. Don’t give both drugs at the same time.

    Serve Easy-to-swallow Foods
    Babies and toddlers with scratchy, sore throats often don’t want to eat because it hurts to swallow. Feed them foods that go down more easily.
    Toddlers and babies who eat solids may prefer soft, smooth foods. Try pudding, yogurt, or applesauce.
    If they prefer warmer foods, try chicken broth or freshly made pudding. Babies 6 months and younger should stick with breast milk or baby formula.
    These are just a few easy ways to soothe your little one’s cough or cold. Try them instead of over-the-counter medicines.

    Reference : webmd.com

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  • First Aid Kit

    A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment that is used to give medical treatment. There is a wide variation in the contents of first aid kits based on the knowledge and experience of those putting it together.

    Almost everyone will need to use a first aid kit at some time. Make time to prepare home and travel kits for your family’s safety. First aid kits may be basic or comprehensive. What you need depends on your medical training and your distance from professional medical help. Ready-made first aid kits are commercially available from chain stores or outdoor retailers or with Online Aushadhi. It’s easy to make smart, inexpensive first aid kits.

    Home and Travel First Aid Kit Basics
    Home first aid kits are usually used for treating these types of minor traumatic injuries:

    • Burns
    • Cuts
    • Abrasions (scrapes)
    • Stings
    • Splinters
    • Sprains
    • Strains

    First aid kits for travel need to be more comprehensive because a drug store may or may not be accessible. In addition to personal medical items, the kit should contain items to help alleviate the common symptoms of viral respiratory infections such as these:

    • Fever
    • Nasal congestion
    • Cough
    • Sore throat

    It should also contain items to treat these ailments:

    • Cuts
    • Mild pain
    • Gastrointestinal problems
    • Skin problems
    • Allergies

    Try to keep your kit small and simple. Stock it with multi-use items. Almost anything that provides good visibility of contents can be used for a household first aid kit.

    How to Use a First Aid Kit ?
    Make sure you know how to properly use all of the items in your kit, especially the medications. Train others in your family to use the kit. You may be the one who needs first aid.

    Pack and use barrier items such as latex gloves to protect yourself from the bodily fluids of others. Check the kit twice a year and replace expired drugs.

    Where to keep your first aid kit:

    The best place to keep your first aid kit is in the kitchen. Most family activities take place here. The bathroom has too much humidity, which shortens the shelf life of items.

    The travel kit is for true trips away from home. Keep it in a suitcase, backpack, or dry bag, depending on the activity.

    Must-Have First Aid Kit Essentials
    You can buy all items for your first aid kits at a well-stocked drug store. Ask the pharmacist for help in selecting items.

    A household first aid kit should include these items:

    • Adhesive tape
    • Anesthetic spray (Bactine) or lotion (Calamine, Campho-Phenique) — for itching rashes and insect bites
    • 4″ x 4″ sterile gauze pads — for covering and cleaning wounds, as a soft eye patch
    • 2″, 3″, and 4″ Ace bandages — for wrapping sprained or strained joints, for wrapping gauze on to wounds, for wrapping on splints
    • Adhesive bandages (all sizes)
    • Oral antihistamines
    • Topical corticosteroids, such as over the counter Hydrocortisone 1% for rashes
    • Aloe vera topical gel or cream for burn relief
    • Exam gloves — for infection protection, also to make into ice packs when filled with water and frozen
    • Polysporin antibiotic cream — to apply to simple wounds
    • Nonadhesive pads (Telfa) — for covering wounds and burns
    • Pocket mask for CPR
    • Resealable oven bag — as a container for contaminated articles, can become an ice pack
    • Safety pins (large and small) — for splinter removal and for securing triangular bandage sling
    • Scissors
    • Triangular bandage — as a sling, towel, tourniquet
    • Tweezers — for splinter or stinger or tick remova

    A travel first aid kit may contain these items:

    • Adhesive tape
    • 4″ x 4″ sterile gauze pads
    • Antacid — for indigestion
    • Antidiarrheal (Imodium, Pepto-Bismol, for example)
    • Antihistamine cream
    • Antiseptic agent (small bottle liquid soap) — for cleaning wounds and hands
    • Aspirin — for mild pain, heart attack
    • Adhesive bandages (all sizes)
    • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or loratadine (Claritin) — oral antihistamine
    • Topical corticosteroids, such as over the counter Hydrocortisone 1% for rashes
    • Aloe vera topical gel or cream for burn relief
    • Book on first aid
    • Cigarette lighter — to sterilize instruments and to be able to start a fire in the wilderness (to keep warm and to make smoke to signal for help, for examples)
    • Cough medication
    • Dental kit — for broken teeth, loss of crown or filling
    • Exam gloves
    • Small flashlight
    • Ibuprofen (Advil is one brand name)
    • Insect repellant
    • Knife (small Swiss Army-type)
    • Moleskin — to apply to blisters or hot spots
    • Nasal spray decongestant — for nasal congestion from colds or allergies
    • Nonadhesive wound pads (Telfa)
    • Polysporin antibiotic ointment
    • Oral decongestant
    • Personal medications and items
    • Phone card with at least 60 minutes of time (and not a close expiration date) plus at least 10 quarters for pay phones and a list of important people to reach in an emergency
    • Plastic resealable bags (oven and sandwich)
    • Pocket mask for CPR
    • Safety pins (large and small)
    • Scissors
    • Sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or more
    • Thermometer
    • Tweezers

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  • Laughter is the Best Medicine

    It’s fun to share a good laugh. Laughter is strong medicine. It strengthens your immune system, boosts mood, diminishes pain, and protects you from the damaging effects of stress. As children, we used to laugh hundreds of times a day, but as adults life tends to be more serious and laughter more infrequent.

    Laughter is a powerful antidote to stress, pain, and conflict. Nothing works faster or more dependably to bring your mind and body back into balance than a good laugh. Humor lightens your burdens, inspires hopes, connects you to others, and keeps you grounded, focused, and alert. It also helps you to release anger and be more forgiving.

    With so much power to heal and renew, the ability to laugh easily and frequently is a tremendous resource for surmounting problems, enhancing your relationships, and supporting both physical and emotional health. Best of all, this priceless medicine is fun, free, and easy to use.

    Laughter relaxes the whole body. A good, hearty laugh relieves physical tension and stress, leaving your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after.

    Laughter boosts the immune system. Laughter decreases stress hormones and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease.

    Laughter triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. Endorphins promote an overall sense of well-being and can even temporarily relieve pain.

    Laughter protects the heart. Laughter improves the function of blood vessels and increases blood flow, which can help protect you against a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.

    Laughter burns calories. OK, so it’s no replacement for going to the gym, but one study found that laughing for 10 to 15 minutes a day can burn about 40 calories—which could be enough to lose three or four pounds over the course of a year.

    Laughter lightens anger’s heavy load. Nothing diffuses anger and conflict faster than a shared laugh. Looking at the funny side can put problems into perspective and enable you to move on from confrontations without holding onto bitterness or resentment.

    Laughter may even help you to live longer. A study in Norway found that people with a strong sense of humor outlived those who don’t laugh as much. The difference was particularly notable for those battling cancer.

    Laughter makes you feel good. And the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter subsides. Humor helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

    Laughter gives you the courage and strength to find new sources of meaning and hope. Even in the most difficult of times, a laugh–or even simply a smile–can go a long way toward making you feel better. And laughter really is contagious—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun.

    Laughter stops distressing emotions. You can’t feel anxious, angry, or sad when you’re laughing.

    Laughter helps you relax and recharge. It reduces stress and increases energy, enabling you to stay focused and accomplish more.

    Laughter shifts perspective, allowing you to see situations in a more realistic, less threatening light. A humorous perspective creates psychological distance, which can help you avoid feeling overwhelmed and diffuse conflict.

    Laughter draws you closer to others, which can have a profound effect on all aspects of your mental and emotional health.

    Laughter brings people together and strengthens relationships.

    Laughter doesn’t come from hearing jokes, but rather simply from spending time with friends and family.

    Shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting. Humor is a powerful and effective way to heal resentments, disagreements, and hurts. Laughter unites people during difficult times.

    Humor and playful communication strengthen our relationships by triggering positive feelings and fostering emotional connection. When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is created. This bond acts as a strong buffer against stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

    Laughter helps you forget resentments, judgments, criticisms, and doubts.

    Laughter is an especially powerful tool for managing conflict and reducing tension when emotions are running high. Whether with romantic partners, friends and family, or co-workers, you can learn to use humor to smooth over disagreements, lower everyone’s stress level, and communicate in a way that builds up your relationships rather than breaking them down.

    Physical health benefits of laughter

    • Boosts immunity
    • Lowers stress hormones
    • Decreases pain
    • Relaxes your muscles
    • Prevents heart disease
    • Mental health benefits of laughter
    • Adds joy and zest to life
    • Eases anxiety and tension
    • Relieves stress
    • Improves mood
    • Strengthens resilience
    • Social benefits of laughter
    • Strengthens relationships
    • Attracts others to us
    • Enhances teamwork
    • Helps defuse conflict
    • Promotes group bonding
    • Laughter helps you stay mentally healthy

    Bring more laughter into your life

    • Smile
    • Count your blessings
    • When you hear laughter, move toward it
    • Spend time with fun, playful people
    • Bring humor into conversations

    Develop your sense of humor :

    • Laugh at yourself. Share your embarrassing moments.
    • Attempt to laugh at situations rather than bemoan them. Look for the humor in a bad situation, and uncover the irony and absurdity of life. When something negative happens, try to find a way to make it a humorous anecdote that will make others laugh.
    • Surround yourself with reminders to lighten up. Keep a toy on your desk or in your car. Put up a funny poster in your office. Choose a computer screensaver that makes you laugh. Frame photos of you and your family or friends having fun.
    • Remember funny things that happen. If something amusing happens or you hear a joke or funny story you really like, write it down or tell it to someone else to help you remember it.
    • Don’t dwell on the negative. Try to avoid negative people and don’t dwell on news stories, entertainment, or conversations that make you sad or unhappy. Many things in life are beyond your control—particularly the behavior of other people. While you might think taking the weight of the world on your shoulders is admirable, in the long run it’s unrealistic and unhealthy.
    • Find your inner child. Pay attention to children and try to emulate them—after all, they are the experts on playing, taking life lightly, and laughing at ordinary things.
    • Deal with stress. Stress can be a major impediment to humor and laughter, so it’s important to get your stress levels in check. One great technique to relieve stress in the moment is to draw upon a favorite memory that always makes you smile—something your kids did, for example, or something funny a friend told you.
    • Don’t go a day without laughing. Think of it like exercise or breakfast and make a conscious effort to find something each day that makes you laugh. Set aside 10 to 15 minutes and do something that amuses you. The more you get used to laughing each day, the less effort you’ll have to make.

    Source : https://www.helpguide.org/articles/mental-health/laughter-is-the-best-medicine.htm

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