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    Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.The normal range is 2.1–2.6 mmol/L (8.8–10.7 mg/dL, 4.3–5.2 mEq/L) with levels less than 2.1 mmol/L defined as hypocalcemia. Mildly low levels that develop slowly often have no symptoms.Otherwise symptoms may include numbness, muscle spasms, seizures, confusion, or cardiac arrest.

    Common Causes includes….

    • Hypoparathyroidism and Vitamin D deficiency
    • Kidney failure,
    • Pancreatitis,
    • Calcium channel blocker overdose,
    • Rhabdomyolysis,
    • Tumor lysis syndrome,

    The natural aging process can cause calcium deficiency disease. Most of the calcium in your body is stored in your bones. As you age, your bones begin to thin or become less dense. This increases your daily calcium requirement.

    symptoms of calcium deficiency disease

    Severe symptoms of calcium deficiency disease include:

    • confusion or memory loss
    • muscle spasms
    • numbness and tingling in the hands, feet, and face
    • depression
    • hallucinations
    • muscle cramps
    • weak and brittle nails
    • easy fracturing of the bones
    • Diagnosis of Hypocalcemia

    Measurement of calcium level in the blood

    Hypocalcemia is often detected by routine blood tests before symptoms become obvious. Doctors measure the total calcium level (which includes calcium bound to albumin) and the albumin level in blood to determine whether the level of unbound calcium is low. Blood tests are done to evaluate kidney function and to measure magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels. Other substances in blood may be measured to help determine the cause.

    Before treating hypocalcemia:
    ƒ We should check these three things also

    • Magnesium serum concentration should be checked in hypocalcemic patients becausehypomagnesemia can induce hypocalcemia (due to end organ resistance to parathyroid hormoneand possibly impaired PTH secretion).
    • Phosphate serum concentration should be examined, as hyperphosphatemia can induce
      hypocalcemia due to metastatic calcification of calcium phosphate in the soft tissues and lungs
      (usually associated with renal disease).
    • ƒ Arterial pH should be assessed because alkalemia can induce hypocalcemia due to increased
      protein binding of calcium.

    Treatment of Hypocalcemia

    Calcium supplements

    • Intravenous supplementation of calciun: Calcium Gluconate 10% given through slow IV push
    • Oral calcium supplementation

    Treatment of underlying  cause

    • If caused by hypomagnesemia,normalize the level of magnesium to resolve the presence of hypocalcemia.
    • If vitamin D deficiency is the cause giving of vitamin D supplements orally is advised

    Continuous monitoring and treatment of symptoms

    • Asssessment and treatment of symptoms such as tetany and seizures are necessary to prevent high -risk complications.
    • Frequent checking of the serum calcium level throughout the duration of treatment.

    Physical Therapy Management

    • Detection and assessment for the presence of hypocalcemia sigh and symptoms.
    • Management of the present manifestations.
    • Doing appropriate referral of these conditions as needed

    Diet modification

    • Diet highin calcium is advised to replace the deficient level of serum calcium in the body. Food rich in calcium are:
    • Green leafy vegetables such as spinach
    • Dairy products
    • Dried herbs: Rosemary leafs (दौनी पात ), Poppy seed (अफीम बीउ), Oregano(रामतुलसी)
    • Grains
    • Herrings








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  • Vericos vein

    Varicose veins

    Varicose veins are gnarled, enlarged veins. Any vein may become varicose, but the veins most commonly affected are those in your legs and feet. That’s because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.For many people, varicose veins and spider veins — a common, mild variation of varicose veins — are simply a cosmetic concern. For other people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. Sometimes varicose veins lead to more-serious problems.

    The National Institutes of Health estimates that 60% of all men and women suffer from some  of vein disorder. A quarter of varicose vein sufferers are men, although Dr.Robert A. Weiss, MD, assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore notes that it is almost always women who seek help for spider veins.Spider veins, the more delicate red or blue tracings that can pop up on the skin’s surface like kinky spider webs, are a minor form of varicose veins and can precede development of the more unsightly variation or cause cosmetic concerns of their own. Sun exposure can make spider veins worse by breaking down collagen under the skin.


    • Varicose veins may not cause any pain. Signs you may have with varicose veins include:
    • Veins that are dark purple or blue in color
    • Veins that appear twisted and bulging; often like cords on your legs
    • When painful signs and symptoms occur, they may include:
    • An achy or heavy feeling in your legs
    • Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in your lower legs
    • Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time
    • Itching around one or more of your veins
    • Bleeding from varicose veins

    Causes of varicose veins can include:

    Age. As you get older, your veins can lose elasticity, causing them to stretch. The valves in your veins may become weak, allowing blood that should be moving toward your heart to flow backward. Blood pools in your veins, and your veins enlarge and become varicose. The veins appear blue because they contain deoxygenated blood, which is in the process of being recirculated through the lungs.

    Pregnancy. Some pregnant women develop varicose veins. Pregnancy increases the volume of blood in your body, but decreases the flow of blood from your legs to your pelvis. This circulatory change is designed to support the growing fetus, but it can produce an unfortunate side effect — enlarged veins in your legs. Varicose veins may surface for the first time or may worsen during late pregnancy, when your uterus exerts greater pressure on the veins in your legs. Changes in your hormones during pregnancy also may play a role. Varicose veins that develop during pregnancy generally improve without medical treatment three to 12 months after delivery.

    How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve appearance.

    Lifestyle Changes

    Avoid standing or sitting for long periods without taking a break. When sitting, avoid crossing your legs. Keep your legs raised when sitting, resting, or sleeping. When you can, raise your legs above the level of your heart.Do physical activities to get your legs moving and improve muscle tone. This helps blood move through your veins.If you’re overweight or obese, try to lose weight. This will improve blood flow and ease the pressure on your veins.Avoid wearing tight clothes, especially those that are tight around your waist, groin (upper thighs), and legs. Tight clothes can make varicose veins worse.Avoid wearing high heels for long periods. Lower heeled shoes can help tone your calf muscles. Toned muscles help blood move through the veins.

    Compression stockings

    Wearing compression stockings all day is often the first approach to try before moving on to other treatments. They steadily squeeze your legs, helping veins and leg muscles move blood more efficiently. The amount of compression varies by type and brand. You can buy compression stockings at most pharmacies and medical supply stores. Prices vary. Prescription-strength stockings also are available.

    Medical Procedures

    Medical procedures are done either to remove varicose veins or to close them. Removing or closing varicose veins usually doesn’t cause problems with blood flow because the blood starts moving through other veins.You may be treated with one or more of the procedures described below. Common side effects right after most of these procedures include bruising, swelling, skin discoloration, and slight pain.The side effects are most severe with vein stripping and ligation (li-GA-shun). Rarely, this procedure can cause severe pain, infections, blood clots, and scarring.


    Sclerotherapy (SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) uses a liquid chemical to close off a varicose vein. The chemical is injected into the vein to cause irritation and scarring inside the vein. The irritation and scarring cause the vein to close off, and it fades away.This procedure often is used to treat smaller varicose veins and spider veins. It can be done in your doctor’s office, while you stand. You may need several treatments to completely close off a vein.Treatments typically are done every 4 to 6 weeks. Following treatments, your legs will be wrapped in elastic bandaging to help with healing and decrease swelling.


    Microsclerotherapy (MI-kro-SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) is used to treat spider veins and other very small varicose veins. A small amount of liquid chemical is injected into a vein using a very fine needle. The chemical scars the inner lining of the vein, causing it to close off.

    Laser surgeries. Doctors are using new technology in laser treatments to close off smaller varicose veins and spider veins. Laser surgery works by sending strong bursts of light onto the vein, which makes the vein slowly fade and disappear. No incisions or needles are used.

    Catheter-assisted procedures using radiofrequency or laser energy. In one of these treatments, your doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into an enlarged vein and heats the tip of the catheter using either radiofrequency or laser energy. As the catheter is pulled out, the heat destroys the vein by causing it to collapse and seal shut. This procedure is the preferred treatment for larger varicose veins.

    Endovenous Ablation Therapy

    Endovenous ablation (ab-LA-shun) therapy uses lasers or radio waves to create heat to close off a varicose vein. Your doctor makes a tiny cut in your skin near the varicose vein. He or she then inserts a small tube called a catheter into the vein. A device at the tip of the tube heats up the inside of the vein and closes it off. You’ll be awake during this procedure, but your doctor will numb the area around the vein. You usually can go home the same day as the procedure.

    Endoscopic Vein Surgery

    For endoscopic (en-do-SKOP-ik) vein surgery, your doctor will make a small cut in your skin near a varicose vein. He or she then uses a tiny camera at the end of a thin tube to move through the vein. A surgical device at the end of the camera is used to close the vein. Endoscopic vein surgery usually is used only in severe cases when varicose veins are causing skin ulcers (sores). After the procedure, you usually can return to your normal activities within a few weeks.

    Ambulatory Phlebectomy

    For ambulatory phlebectomy (fle-BEK-to-me), your doctor will make small cuts in your skin to remove small varicose veins. This procedure usually is done to remove the varicose veins closest to the surface of your skin. You’ll be awake during the procedure, but your doctor will numb the area around the vein. Usually, you can go home the same day that the procedure is done.

    Vein Stripping and Ligation

    Vein stripping and ligation typically is done only for severe cases of varicose veins. The procedure involves tying shut and removing the veins through small cuts in your skin. You’ll be given medicine to temporarily put you to sleep so you don’t feel any pain during the procedure. Vein stripping and ligation usually is done as an outpatient procedure. The recovery time from the procedure is about 1 to 4 weeks.




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  • Treatment of COPD

    Many people don’t recognize the symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) until later stages of the disease. Sometimes people think they are short of breath or less able to go about their normal activities because they are “just getting older.” But shortness of breath is never normal. If you experience any of these symptoms, or think you might be at risk for COPD, it is important to discuss this with your doctor.

    COPD is actually an umbrella term that includes
    Chronic Bronchitis

    Symptoms of COPD

    • Chronic cough
    • Shortness of breath while doing everyday activities (dyspnea)
    • Frequent respiratory infections
    • Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)
    • Fatigue
    • Producing a lot of mucus (also called phlegm or sputum)
    • Wheezing

    If you’re willing, there are many ways to treat and reduce your risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with your own efforts and natural treatment. But first, you must realize you have COPD symptoms to begin with — then you can pinpoint exactly how to treat them.

    Natural Treatments for COPD Symptoms

    1. Avoid Smoke in Every Way
    The most essential step in conventional and natural treatment plan for COPD is the same stop any and all forms of smoking. You should also avoid air pollution as much as possible. If you’re not a smoker, then you definitely need to avoid places where others smoke.

    2. Stay Active
    Staying physically active is the second most important thing you can do at home to help manage symptoms of COPD. There are techniques for breathing that can help you breathe more efficiently with COPD. These breathing techniques can also help improve breathing for people with asthma as well as people who don’t currently have lung issues but want to optimize their breathing.

    3. Eat Right
    A healthy diet can help manage and improve COPD symptoms. Some foods in particular should be mainstays when it comes to an anti-COPD diet while others should be majorly or entirely avoided.Your diet should definitely have plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits to ensure you’re getting lots of vitamins, minerals and fiber. Citrus fruits are especially helpful because they contain quercetin.
    If you’re suffering with COPD symptoms, you definitely want to steer clear of conventional dairy since pasteurized dairy is mucus-producing and can plug the airways in the lungs.

    4. Increase Water Intake Inside and Outside the Body                                                                                        One of the common and frustrating COPD symptoms is having mucus collect in your airways. This mucus can be difficult to clear and result in persistent and uncontrollable coughing. One internal way you can improve this mucus problem is by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. Drink at least eight glasses of water daily to thin mucus and stay hydrated.

    5. Exercise                                                                                                                                                                           When you’re having trouble breathing, exercise might seem like a terrible idea, but being sedentary won’t do anything to help your COPD symptoms. By regularly getting exercise, especially cardio workouts, you can strengthen your respiratory muscles and improve your overall endurance.

    6. Use Eucalyptus Oil
    Eucalyptus oil can be very helpful for people with COPD. A study in Respiratory Research showed that cineole, the main constituent of eucalyptus essential oil, actually reduced exacerbation’s in people with COPD. It also reduced dyspnea (shortness of breath), and improved lung function as well as health status overall. Furthermore, the research suggested that cineole is an active controller and reducer of airway inflammation in COPD.

    7. Avoid Cold and Crowds                                                                                                                                              When you have COPD symptoms, it’s important to avoid things that make them even worse. I already told you that smoke and pollution are absolutely key to avoid. Another thing to be aware of is the fact that cold air can trigger bronchospasm, a sudden constriction in the muscles of airway walls that leads to shortness of breath. If the weather is really chilly, it’s a smart idea to avoid or reduce your time outdoors. You can also help your symptoms by putting on a face mask before going out into very cold temperatures.

    8. Develop Good Medication-Taking Habits                                                                                                          While your doctor is the one who decides which medications you should take, your actions at home can ensure that your treatments are as effective as possible. Before you leave your doctor’s office, be sure that you understand why you’re taking the COPD medications you’ve been prescribed.

    9. Reduce Stress
    Stress can exacerbate COPD symptoms like shortness of breath, so it’s important to manage the level of stress in your life. You cannot avoid all stress, but you can work on reducing the stressors you’re exposed to and make an effort to practice being more calm and relaxed. Taking some time each day to unwind, both physically and mentally. You can relax by napping, listening to soothing music

    10. Protect Yourself
    When you have COPD, it’s important to avoid situations that can aggravate your symptoms. Cold air can trigger bronchospasm, a sudden constriction in the muscles of airway walls that leads to shortness of breath. Avoid going out in the cold if possible, or put on a cold-air face mask before leaving the house. Respiratory infections can cause COPD symptoms to worsen, so stay away from crowds if possible.If you must be in a crowded area.




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  • Tips: Stay Healthy in Winter

    Who wants to exercise when it’s cold and dark outside? But even in winter getting outdoors can put you in a better mood. It may even improve your concentration.

    So bundle yourself and your kids up in layers. Be sure everyone’s heads and hands are covered. And, take some extra time warming up before you exercise in the cold. Then, try these fun activities to keep you and your family in motion through the winter months.

    1. Avoid the Handshake
    It’s becoming more common—and less socially awkward—to skip hand-to-hand contact (and the subsequent germ exchange) during cold and flu season. “Fist bumps and elbow bumps are replacing the handshake in many settings,” says William Schaffner, M.D., professor of preventive medicine and infectious disease at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn. “Among my infectious disease colleagues I see a version of the South Asian ‘Namaste,’ where we put our hands together at our chests, make eye contact and give a little bow.”

    2. Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes Properly
    If you’re the one who’s spewing germs, one way to keep them to yourself is to sneeze or cough into the crook of your elbow. “When you cough or sneeze, that air comes out with a good degree of force, spreading virus particles to anyone within a 3- to 6-foot range,” says Lisa Grohskopf, M.D., a medical officer in the Influenza Division at the CDC. Sneezing or coughing into your hand will help keep the germs from going airborne, but if you don’t wash your hands immediately, you’ll spread the germs the minute you touch anything or anyone.

    3. Be proactive about preventing ear infections
    Warm up garlic oil (sold in natural health food stores) to body temperature and put a dropper full into each ear canal.

    4. Keep Your Distance
    Respiratory viruses, like colds and flu, can spread easily through the air. “When someone who’s sick exhales, they breathe out microscopic droplets of fluid containing the virus,” Schaffner says. “And anyone else within their ‘breathing zone’ can then breathe in that infected air.” To stay safely out of reach, keep about 6 feet between you and any sick person who is likely to breathe, cough, or sneeze in your direction.

    5. Clean Often-Touched Surfaces
    Because those nasty bacteria and viruses stick around on surfaces for hours or even days, cleaning is key. “I recommend an approach called ‘targeted hygiene,’” says Elizabeth Scott, Ph.D., co-director of the Simmons Center for Hygiene and Health in Home and Community at Simmons College in Boston, and co-author of the 2012 study. “This means targeting cleaning and disinfection practices when and where there is a risk of infection transmission.” For example, if someone has a respiratory infection or gastrointestinal infection in a given setting, such as at home or the office, that would be the time to target those common touch surfaces or a regular, at least daily, basis. At the office, wipe down shared work spaces and equipment, such as copy machines that the whole office touches. At home, focus on the hard surfaces—like doorknobs, faucets, and TV remotes—on which bacteria live the longest. Just as with hand-washing, you can skip the anti-bacterial cleaning products. Experts say any household cleaner—or a diluted bleach solution—will do the trick.

    6.Keep stress to a minimum
    Studies have linked high stress levels to making a person more susceptible to catching colds and flu. Minimize your stress by working reasonable hours at your job. Aim for at least one night per week to spend with friends and family. If your stress is out of hand and you feel like you need some help, let me know. Frequently, I work with people who have stress or emotional challenges and utilize Bach Flower Remedies to bring their emotional health back into balance.

    7.Eat a healthy diet
    Maintaining a good healthy diet full of fresh fruits and vegetables and minimal amounts of organic meats is another way to keep your body clean and in good working order. Try eating an extra piece of fruit or veggie every day too!

    8.Get the right amount of sleep every night
    The average person needs 6-8 hours of sleep per night. If you’re not getting enough sleep, your body is extremely vulnerable to illness. Sleep is very much like fuel that recharges your batteries! You’ve got to do it to keep the machine running.

    9.Wash your hands regularly
    Keep the bacteria and viruses off your hands and out of your mouth and eyes. Keep a bottle of hand sanitizer close-by for those instances where you can’t get to soap and water.

    10. Don’t smoke
    Most of you already know this, but it bears repeating because smoking significantly weakens your immune system. If you want to quit and have tried everything else, let me know. I have some nutritional recommendations that can help you quit!

    11. Protect your skin
    Sunscreen is more important in the winter. There are two types of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun that damage your skin: ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) light. UVB light penetrates the superficial layers of the skin and causes skin to redden; it’s responsible for sunburn and can also lead to skin cancer over time. But UVB rays are at least blocked by window glass from the house and car and are less intense in the winter months. UVA light, on the other hand, penetrates top and deeper layers of skin, causing cell damage that can lead to cancer. UVA light is tough to avoid because it passes through window glass and stays the same strength all year—so keep up your sunscreen routine.

    12. Drink more milk
    You are 80% more likely to get a cold in winter, so making sure your immune system is in tip-top condition is important. Milk and dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt and fromage frais are great sources of protein and vitamins A and B12.

    13. Have a hearty breakfast
    Winter is the perfect season for porridge. Eating a warm bowlful on a cold morning isn’t just a delicious way to start your day, it also helps boost your intake of starchy foods and fibre.

    14. Keep moving
    While it’s a little harder to find the motivation to exercise when it is cold outside, remember that keeping active during winter is essential to support our health and wellbeing. Moving your exercise indoors during winter will help to keep you warm as well as fit and healthy. Be sure to spend time warming up before you start your exercise as it can take a little longer for your joints to loosen up in the cold weather.

    During winter our hands and feet can often feel cold. Our hands and feet are at the extremities of our bodies which means they are the furthest from the heart which is pumping blood around our body to help keep us warm. Vitamin E and the herb Ginkgo help to support peripheral blood circulation, thereby alleviating cold hands and feet. Keep moving with gentle exercise to help improve circulation to the extremities of the body and don’t forget your socks and gloves! If you can’t seem to keep your hands warm (and it’s not bothering you excessively) take solace in the old saying “Cold hands, warm heart”

    16. Hiking
    Hiking affords many of the same benefits as walking, and gives you the chance to explore new vistas.

    17. Running
    Vigorous exercise like running slows the effects of aging and appears to help fend off disease and disability.

    18. Yoga or Pilates
    Yoga is a great way for adults and kids to keep muscles limber and take a stress break. Pilates builds strong core muscles and can improve posture. You can find yoga and Pilates classes at a gym, in a studio, or get a DVD you can follow at home.

    19. Swimming
    If you have access to an indoor pool, jump in for your mental and physical health. Not only is swimming the most popular athletic activity in the U.S., swimmers tend to live longer and have better moods than people who do not exercise.
    Beside this:

    Take These Steps for Your Home

    Many people prefer to remain indoors in the winter, but staying inside is no guarantee of safety. Take these steps to keep your home safe and warm during the winter months.
    -Winterize your home. ◦Install weather stripping, insulation, and storm windows.
    -Insulate water lines that run along exterior walls.
    -Clean out gutters and repair roof leaks.

    Check your heating systems. ◦Have your heating system serviced professionally to make sure that it is clean, working properly, and ventilated to the outside.
    -Inspect and clean fireplaces and chimneys.
    -Install a smoke detector. Test batteries monthly and replace them twice a year.
    -Have a safe alternate heating source and alternate fuels available.
    -Prevent carbon monoxide (CO) emergencies. ◾Install a CO detector to alert you of the presence of the deadly, odorless, colorless gas. Check batteries when you change your clocks in the fall and spring.
    -Learn symptoms of CO poisoning: headache, dizziness, weakness, upset stomach, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion.
    Take These Precautions Outdoors

    Many people spend time outdoors in the winter working, traveling, or enjoying winter sports. Outdoor activities can expose you to several safety hazards, but you can take these steps to prepare for them:
    -Wear appropriate outdoor clothing: wear a tightly woven, preferably wind-resistant coat or jacket; inner layers of light, warm clothing; mittens; hats; scarves; and waterproof boots.
    -Sprinkle cat litter or sand on icy patches.
    -Learn safety precautions to follow when outdoors. ◦Work slowly when doing outside chores.
    -Take a buddy and an emergency kit when you are participating in outdoor recreation.
    -Carry a cell phone.



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  • Make Stress Work For You, Instead Of Stressing You Out

    Stressed out about your new job, new assignment, or new day at school? It is very hard to shake off stress and be cool about certain situations. Here are few ways in which you can make stress work for you:

    1. Say It Again: “I’m Excited!”
    Motivate yourself instead of being stressed. Tell yourself that you’re excited for the change, or challenge. Stress is also an enhancing way of growing, and can improve your performance at job interviews. Positivity changes the way stress hormones react in your brain.

    2. Keep Your Eye On The Prize
    Encourage yourself to go through the challenge by keeping your eyes on the long-term benefits. This way, you will gain more control on your life. So when you’re freaking out about a presentation, just remember this tip.

    3. Make A Stress Playlist
    Heal your mind with the power of music. Music can cheer you up, and motivate you to forget about your stress for a while. Make a playlist of songs which can help you manage the moment well.

    4. Remember That Too Much Is Too Bad
    You tend to make wrong decisions under too much stress. You need to look at the purpose and meaning of the stress that is bothering you to keep it in control. And you will enjoy when it ends. You will be proud that you handled it well.

    5. Love your Body
    When one exercises, one actually activates body chemicals that reduce stress, thereby reducing its cumulative effect on the body and mind. Exercise also helps one sleep better throughout the night, which is another key factor in a healthy lifestyle.

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  • बिपन्न नागरिकहरुले यी संस्थाहरुबाट नि:शुल्क औषधी उपचार सेवा लिन सकिन्छ

    सरकारले विभिन्न आठ प्रकारका रोग – मिर्गौला, मुटु, क्यान्सर, स्पाइनल तथा हेडइन्जुरी, अल्जाइमर्स र पार्किन्सन्स् र सिकलसेल एनिमियाका बिपन्न बिरामीहरुलाई यी संस्थाहरुबाट नि:शुल्क औषधी उपचार सेवा प्रधान गर्दछ.

    १. वीर अस्पताल
    २. परोपकार प्रसूति तथा स्त्रीरोग अस्पताल, थापाथली
    ३. मानव अङ्ग प्रत्यारोपण केन्द्र, भक्तपुर
    ४. पश्चिमाञ्चल क्षेत्रीय अस्पताल
    ५. नारायणी उपक्षेत्रीय अस्पताल, वीरगञ्ज
    ६. जनकपुर अञ्चल अस्पताल
    ७. कोसी अञ्चल अस्पताल
    ८. निजामती कर्मचारी अस्पताल
    ९. सेती अञ्चल अस्पताल
    १०. नेपाल मेडिकल कलेज, जोरपाटी
    ११. शिक्षण अस्पताल, महाराजगञ्ज
    १२. स्वास्थ्य विज्ञान प्रतिष्ठान, पाटन
    १३. बिपी स्वास्थ्य विज्ञान प्रतिष्ठान, धरान
    १४. मनमोहन कार्डियोथोरापी भास्कुलर एन्ड ट्रान्सप्लान्ट केन्द्र
    १५. सहिद गङ्गालाल हृदय केन्द्र
    १६. बिपी कोइराला मेमोरियल क्यान्सर अस्पताल, भरतपुर
    १७. भक्तपुर क्यान्सर अस्पताल
    १८. क्यान्सर केयर नेपाल, जाउलाखेल
    १९. राष्ट्रिय मिर्गौला उपचार केन्द्र
    २०. चितवन मेडिकल कलेज, चितवन
    २१. कलेज अफ मेडिकल साइन्सेज, भरतपुर
    २२. चितवन मेडिकल कलेज, चितवन
    २३. कलेज अफ मेडिकल साइन्सेज, भरतपुर
    २४. गण्डकी मेडिकल कलेज, पोखरा
    २५. मणिपाल शिक्षण अस्पताल, पोखरा
    २६. विएन्ड वि अस्पताल, ग्वार्को, ललितपुर
    २७. युनिभर्सल कलेज अफ मेडिकल साइन्सेज, भैरहवा
    २८. नेपालगञ्ज मेडिकल कलेज, बाँके
    २९. आरोग्य स्वास्थ्य प्रतिष्ठान, ललितपुर
    ३०. नेशनल डायलासिस सेन्टर, वसुन्धरा

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  • Symptoms, Cause and Cure for Sore Throat

    Sore throat is one symptom of an array of different medical disorders. Infections cause the majority of sore throats, and these are the sore throats that are contagious (can be passed from one person to another). Infections are caused by either viruses (such as the “flu” the “common cold” or mononucleosis) or bacteria (such as “strep”, mycoplasma or hemophilus).

    a. Pain or a scratchy sensation in the throat
    b. Pain that worsens with swallowing or talking
    c. Difficulty swallowing
    d. Sore, swollen glands in your neck or jaw
    e. Swollen, red tonsils
    f. White patches or pus on your tonsils
    g. Hoarse or muffled voice


    a. Viruses:
    Most viral sore throats accompany the “flu” or a “cold:’ When a stuffy-runny nose, sneezing, and generalized aches and pains accompany the sore throat, it is probably caused by one of the hundreds of known viruses. These are highly contagious and cause epidemics in a community, especially in the winter. The body cures itself of a viral infection by building antibodies that destroy the virus, a process that takes about a week.

    b. Bacteria:
    “Strep throat” is an infection caused by a particular strain of streptococcus bacteria. This infection can also cause damage to the heart valves (rheumatic fever) and kidneys (nephritis). Streptococcal infections can also cause scarlet fever, tonsillitis, pneumonia, sinusitis and ear infections.

    c. Allergy:
    Hayfever and allergy sufferers can get an irritated throat during an allergy attack the same way they get a stuffy, itchy nose, sneezing and post nasal drip. The same pollens and molds that irritate the nose when they are inhaled also may irritate the throat. People allergic to cat and dog danders can suffer an irritated throat when they are around such animals. A very common allergy is house dust, and it is a special problem in the winter when a heating system blows dust throughout the house.

    d. Irritation:
    During the cold winter months, dry heat may create a recurring, mild sore throat with a parched feeling, especially in the mornings. This often responds to humidification of bedroom air and increased liquid intake. Patients with a chronic stuffy nose, causing mouth breathing, also suffer with a dry throat. They need examination and treatment of the nose.

    e. Tumors:
    Tumors of the throat, tongue and larynx (voice box) are usually (but not always) associated with long time use of tobacco and alcohol. Sore throat and difficult swallowing-sometimes with pain radiating to the ear – may be symptoms of such a tumor. More often the sore throat is so mild or so chronic that it is hardly noticed. Other important symptoms include hoarseness, a lump in the neck, unexplained weight loss and/or spitting up blood in the saliva or phlegm.


    a. Not treating is an option as many throat infections are mild and soon get better without treatment.

    b. Have enough to drink to avoid lack of fluid in the body (dehydration).
    It is tempting not to drink very much if it is painful to swallow. You may become mildly dehydrated if you don’t drink much, particularly if you also have a high temperature (fever). Mild dehydration can make headaches and tiredness much worse.

    c. Paracetamol or ibuprofen ease pain, headache and fever.
    To keep symptoms to a minimum it is best to take a dose at regular intervals, as recommended on the packet of medication, rather than now and then. For example, take paracetamol four times a day until symptoms ease. If necessary, you can alternate and take both. Note: some people with certain conditions may not be able to take ibuprofen, so always read the packet label. It is very important not to take more than the dose advised on the packet.

    d. Lozenges can be bought in pharmacies or supermarkets.
    Some people find these helpful to soothe a sore throat. You may also find sucking boiled sweets, ice and ice lollies can be soothing.

    e. Other gargles and sprays can be bought at pharmacies to help to soothe a sore throat.
    However, there is not very much evidence about how effective they are and they do not shorten the illness.

    Other cure

    a. Tea
    Tired of drinking water? A warm cup of herbal tea can offer immediate, soothing relief for a sore throat. What’s more, non-herbal teas—whether they’re made with black, green, or white leaves—contain antioxidants that are thought to strengthen immunity and ward off infection.

    b. Cough syrup
    Even if you don’t have a cough (yet), over-the-counter cough syrups can help ease soreness. Like drops and sprays, they coat the throat and provide temporary pain relief.

    c.Saltwater gargle
    Several studies have found that gargling several times a day with warm salt water can reduce swelling in the throat and loosen mucus, helping to flush out irritants or bacteria.


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  • 12 Common Winter diseases

    As the leaves change and chillier weather sets in across the country, certain illnesses rise to their peak and spread throughout schools and workplaces.
    Due to the evolution from hot to milder air and the piling of children back into schools, a mess of germs sparks the start of a new season of illnesses that sweep through every corner of the country.
    1. Flu
    Flu is a major killer of vulnerable people. People aged 65 and over and people with long-term health conditions, including diabetes and kidney disease, are particularly at risk.

    2. Common Colds
    While colds are not completely debilitating, it can be bothersome and inconvenient. Mayo Clinic recommended to always follow a good hygiene to protect against this disease. Also, cover your mouth and nose with tissues when you cough or sneeze if you start getting the sniffle. Pump your body with vitamin C, which you can get from eating fruits or taking supplements.

    3. Norovirus
    Norovirus, which is also known as the “winter vomiting disease,” causes gastroenteritis outbreaks that are more commonly known as the stomach flu. The disease happens all year round but it’s more common during the winter season. Follow these tips previously reported on Latinos Health for best defense against the norovirus.

    4. Asthma
    Cold air can exacerbate asthma symptoms, such as shortness of breath and wheezing. Rain and wind also stir up allergens, which can make asthma worse. Additionally, working out in cold temperatures can be especially problematic — the cold air causes bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways), thus making it even harder to breathe.

    5. Painful joints
    Many people with arthritis say their joints become more painful in winter, though it’s not clear why this is the case. Only joint symptoms such as pain and stiffness are affected by the weather. There’s no evidence that changes in the weather cause joint damage.

    6. Cold hands
    Raynaud’s phenomenon is a common condition that makes your fingers and toes change colour and become very painful in cold weather. Fingers can go white, then blue, then red, and throb and tingle. It’s a sign of poor circulation in the small blood vessels of the hands and feet. In severe cases, medication can help, but most people live with their symptoms.

    7. Dry skin
    Dry skin is a common condition and is often worse during the winter, when environmental humidity is low.
    Moisturising is essential during winter. Contrary to popular belief, moisturising lotions and creams aren’t absorbed by the skin. Instead, they act as a sealant to stop the skin’s natural moisture evaporating away.

    8. Sore Throat
    A certain virus and bacteria is responsible for a sore throat. Your throat becomes itchy, harsh, and sometime gets inflamed. You can apply the following home remedies to get rid of sore throat naturally.

    9. Allergy
    Allergy is another most common seasonal disease. It causes due to dry weather, dust, mites, damp around, and even from your foods. When you come up with allergy, you may feel trouble in breathing.

    10. Migraine and Headache
    Migraine and headache are two painful diseases. Not only in winter, these problems can catch you in all season. Migraine generally happens due to dehydration, weather change, stress, hormonal change in women, and some other reasons.

    11. Heart Attack
    Cold snaps can increase blood pressure, which puts more strain on the heart. Your heart also has to work harder to keep your body warm during the winter months. Biological studies have also shown that cold temperatures can contribute to atherosclerotic plaque in blood vessels. Lower temperatures activate brown fat, which converts fat to heat. This is different from the white, and more common, type — what we normally think of when we think of fat.

    12. Pneumonia
    Pneumonia, inflammation of the lungs, occurs more in the winter. The flu virus is one of the most common causes of viral pneumonia — and since the flu often occurs in the winter, so does pneumonia. It causes the small air sacs in your lungs (alveoli) to fill with fluid. This, coupled with your body’s immune response of sending white blood cells to the area to fight infection, can make it very hard to breathe. Most healthy people recover within one to three weeks. However, it can be life-threatening for at-risk populations, such as children and the elderly.


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  • This Plant can Destroy Cancer, Diabetes and High Pressure

    Many poeple don’t like to include Bitter Melon or Bitter groud or Karela(तितो करेला) in their food intake due to its bitterness but it CURES MANY DISEASES, AND CANCER TOO! So include this in your food intake for better health benefits.

    The one that discovered this is Dr. Frank Shallenberger who is an expert in anti-aging procedures and cures. He says that the it stops growing of cancer and he advises his patients to take this.

    Even stats show that karela kills even 98% of cancer cells.

    The Colorado University made a study that examined the effects of it on humans with cancer. The results were 5% karela solution lessens pancreas cancer and 64% pancreas tumors.


    • Skin problems
    • Asthma
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Better blood pressure (Karela has Polypeptide-P and charantin that make pressure at healthy levels), and treating diabetes 2
    • Belly problems
    • More energy and better metabolism
    • Diminished folate neural tube defects in babies
    • Better immunity and no infections
    • Good vision and no eye issues (since it has beta-carotene)
    • Removing hangover and also detoxing the liver
    • Great Digestion
    • Aids gout and blood flow
    • Hair Health
    • Anti Ageing
    • Cures psoriasis and fungi like Athlete’s foot and also ringworm

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  • Causes of Back Pain

    Back Pain
    Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp pain that makes it hard to move. It can start quickly if you fall or lift something too heavy, or it can get worse slowly.

    Possible causes of back pain include:
    1. bending awkwardly or for long periods
    2. lifting, carrying, pushing or pulling heavy objects
    3. slouching in chairs
    4. twisting awkwardly
    5. overstretching
    6. driving or sitting in a hunched position or for long periods without taking a break
    7. overusing the muscles – for example, during sport or repetitive movements (repetitive strain injury)
    8. Lifting heavy objects
    9. Being overweight
    10. Not exercising
    11. Smoking
    12. Wearing high heels

    Certain things can increase your chances of developing back pain. These include:

    1. Cauda equina syndrome – the cauda equine is a bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the lower end of the spinal cord. People with cauda equine syndrome feel a dull pain in the lower back and upper buttocks, as well as analgesia (lack of feeling) in the buttocks, genitalia and thigh. There are sometimes bowel and bladder function disturbances.

    2. Cancer of the spine – a tumor located on the spine may press against a nerve, resulting in back pain.

    3. Infection of the spine – if the patient has an elevated body temperature (fever) as well as a tender warm area on the back, it could be caused by an infection of the spine.

    4. Sleep disorders – individuals with sleep disorders are more likely to experience back pain, compared to others.

    5. Arthritis: This is a joint disease that causes stiffness, swelling, and inflammation.

    6. Osteoarthritis : This degenerative joint disease happens when your cartilage and bones break down. This most often affects people from middle age onward.

    7. Tumors: In rare cases you can get them in your back. They’re usually spread by a cancer that started somewhere else in your body.


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