• All You Need To Know About HIV Prevention And Treatment

    World AIDS Day originated at the 1988 World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention. Since then, every year December 1st is observed universally as World AIDS Day, by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The chief goal of this annual campaign by the WHO is to spread awareness amongst the general public about AIDS – the deadly disease. It also lays emphasis on the advanced treatment options available for HIV positive patients in primary healthcare centres and the methodology of effectively eliminating AIDS.

    The theme declared by the WHO, for World AIDS Day 2021 is,

    “End Inequalities, End AIDS”

    This endeavour highlights the inherent economic, social, cultural and gender-based disparities that exist in communities worldwide, stressing on removing these factors which limit healthcare facilities for affected patients and work towards bringing an end to the HIV epidemic.

    Of the nearly 40 million people all around the globe affected by AIDS, more than 50 per cent have received a significant reduction in HIV infection by antiretroviral treatment. Understanding the basic pathology of this debilitating condition and taking preventive measures is of foremost importance, inefficiently lowering the occurrence of AIDS in people of all ages.

    What Is HIV And AIDS?
    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks the immune system in the body of an individual. As a result, the affected person becomes unable to efficiently combat any microbial pathogens invading the body and cannot control the progression of grave disorders like cancers and neurodegenerative ailments like Alzheimer’s, dementia etc.

    This leads to the patient becoming immunodeficient, meaning they develop a compromised immune system with weakened defences against any foreign components targeting the body.

    When HIV evolves to the maximum extent in the body of the affected individual, it manifests itself as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This condition causes certain severe cancers like breast cancer, prostate cancer, reproductive malfunctions, and metastasizing infections.

    How Does The HIV Virus Spread?
    HIV spreads from the infected person to a healthy person via body fluids namely blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and even breast milk. The most frequent means of transmission is therefore by sexual intercourse, pregnancy or dirty and used needles in injections.

    What Are The Various Treatment Approaches For HIV-AIDS?
    The primary treatment for HIV-AIDS is antiretroviral medications prescribed by the doctor to be taken by the patient at the specified dosage. This is termed Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and entails ingesting a combination of drugs on a daily basis, that combat HIV and safeguard the immune system. There are six distinct categories of antiretroviral drugs, namely:

    • Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
    • Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
    • Protease Inhibitors
    • Fusion Inhibitors
    • CCR5 Antagonists, otherwise called Entry Inhibitors
    • Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors

    The immune system is comprised of T-lymphocytes or T cells and B lymphocytes or B cells, which regulate antigen-specific responses by synthesizing complementary antibodies and preserving the adaptive immune functions. Since the HIV virus targets CD4 cells – a specific type of T cells responsible for maintaining acquired immunity in the body, antiretroviral drugs shield the CD4 cells from the viral particles and thus sustain the immune system to prevent disease.

    Although there is no cure for HIV, ART i.e. antiretroviral therapy lowers the chances of HIV infection advancing to the more severe condition – AIDS and developing disorders of the kidneys, liver and even cancer. Adhering to the treatment regimen of antiretroviral medicines reduces the viral load i.e. active pathogens in the blood circulation of the patient and also maintains optimal levels of CD4 type of immune T cells, to protect the body from other ailments.

    What Are Ways By Which HIV Transmission Can Be Prevented?
    The best way to prevent the spread of HIV and avert contracting the fatal condition of AIDS is to limit exposure to the risk factors.

    The general public can actively engage their community and take strides towards remarkably decreasing the incidence of HIV and AIDS amongst people of all age groups, be it young adults, middle-aged or the elderly.

    Some effective measures in this regard comprise:

    • Use of condoms while engaging in sexual intercourse
    • Frequent testing for signs of any STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections)
    • Ensuring fresh syringes and needles are used in hospitals, both by healthcare providers and for use in patients
    • Checking blood transfusion equipment to make sure it is sanitized and hygienic, prior to donating or receiving an infusion of blood

    Finally, every person residing in every segment of society must be aware of the hazards of unprotected sexual intercourse and the serious complications it can result in. In this manner, the spread and occurrence of HIV and AIDS infections can be reduced significantly.

    Source : netmeds.com

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  • Eat, Drink and stay healthy in this Dashain

    Dashain is a festival of delicious food with many varieties. Nepalese consume a lot of non-veg recipes during dashain. Many health issues might arise due to the change in the regular menu of food that you eat apart from the regular one.
    Health issues might include drinking, overeating meat, and respiratory exposure to smoke. Vijayadashami is one of the biggest festivals in Nepal. At this greatest festival, don’t forget your health. You should not lose your good health.
    Some of the major tips you should follow in Dasain for good health.

    Diabetes :

    Keep in mind that you should now start eating lesser foods but at a shorter time interval so instead of eating 3 times a day, start eating 4/5 times a day so that it would be easier for your digestive system.
    But make sure none of your meal is as heavy as that of a healthy person and never eat until you feel your stomach to be full.

    Blood Pressure :

    If you have high blood pressure, we recommend eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains. At the same time, we recommend avoiding red meat, salt (sodium), and foods and drinks that contain added sugars. These foods can keep your blood pressure elevated.

    Appendicitis :

    For the organ without any purpose, the appendix causes its share of problems. It is one of the most common emergency surgery performed. After the important surgery, it is imperative to follow a proper Appendicitis diet. The appendicitis diet plan should primarily include Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Zinc, Omega-3 fatty acids, glutamine, etc. Healthy liver function should be maintained to have a faster recovery.

    • Vitamin C-rich food such as orange, guava, lemon, etc. can be very useful in this condition.
    • An extra zinc supplement can also be taken with zinc-rich food.
    • Carrots and sweet potatoes which are good sources of Vitamin A should be consumed along with the other food.
    • Vitamin D is important to have a healthy body, high-quality supplements of which include eggs, fish, cheese, ginger, etc.

    Kidney :

    If you have chronic kidney disease (CKD), it’s important to watch what you eat and drink. That’s because your kidneys can’t remove waste products from your body the way they should. A major function of the kidneys is to get rid of waste and extra fluid from your body through your pee. They also balance your body’s minerals, like salt and potassium. A kidney-friendly diet can help you stay healthier longer.

    • Balance your body’s fluids
    • Make hormones that affect the way other organs work
    • A kidney-friendly diet is a way of eating that helps protect your kidneys from further damage. You’ll have to limit some foods and fluids so other fluids and minerals like electrolytes don’t build up in your body. At the same time, you’ll have to make sure you get the right balance of protein, calories, vitamins, and minerals.
    • If you’re in the early stages of CKD, there may be few, if any, limits on what you can eat. But as your disease gets worse, you’ll have to be more careful about what you put into your body.

    Gastric or Gastritis :

    Gastritis is an inflammation, irritation, or erosion of the lining of the stomach. It can occur suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

    • Avoid hot and spicy foods.
    • Reduce the consumption of excessive alcohol.
    • Eliminate irritating foods from your diet such as lactose from dairy or gluten from wheat.
    • Read this article to know more about home remedies

    Gout :

    Gout is a painful form of arthritis that occurs when high levels of uric acid in the blood cause crystals to form and accumulate in and around a joint.
    Uric acid is produced when the body breaks down a chemical called purine. Purine occurs naturally in your body, but it’s also found in certain foods. Uric acid is eliminated from the body in urine.
    A gout diet may help decrease uric acid levels in the blood. A gout diet isn’t a cure. But it may lower the risk of recurring gout attacks and slow the progression of joint damage.
    People with gout who follow a gout diet generally still need medication to manage pain and to lower levels of uric acid.
    Here is a sample gout diet.

    • Whole-grain, unsweetened cereal with skim or low-fat milk
    • 1 cup fresh strawberries
    • Coffee
    • Water
    • Roasted chicken breast slices (2 ounces) on a whole-grain roll with mustard
    • Mixed green salad with vegetables, 1 tablespoon nuts, and balsamic vinegar and olive oil dressing
    • Skim or low-fat milk or water
    • Afternoon snack
    • 1 cup fresh cherries
    • Water
    • Roasted salmon (3 to 4 ounces)
    • Roasted or steamed green beans
    • 1/2 to 1 cup whole-grain pasta with olive oil and lemon pepper
    • Water
    • Low-fat yogurt
    • 1 cup fresh melon
    • Caffeine-free beverage, such as herbal tea

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  • The Best Hangover Cures

    Drinking alcohol, especially too much, can be accompanied by various side effects. A hangover is the most common one, with symptoms including fatigue, headache, nausea, dizziness, thirst and sensitivity to light or sound.
    While there’s no shortage of purported hangover cures, ranging from chugging a glass of pickle juice to rubbing a lemon in your armpit before drinking, few of them are backed by science.
    This article explains few ways to cure a hangover.

    1. Eat a good breakfast
      Eating a hearty breakfast is one of the most well-known remedies for a hangover. One reason is that a good breakfast can help maintain your blood sugar levels. Although low blood sugar levels are not necessarily the cause of a hangover, they’re often associated with it. Low blood sugar could also contribute to some hangover symptoms, such as nausea, fatigue and weakness.
      In addition to helping reduce certain hangover symptoms, eating a healthy breakfast can provide important vitamins and minerals, which may become depleted with excessive alcohol intake.
    2. Get plenty of sleep
      Alcohol can cause sleep disturbances and may be associated with decreased sleep quality and duration for some individuals. While a lack of sleep does not cause a hangover, it can make your hangover worse.
      Fatigue, headaches and irritability are all hangover symptoms that can be exacerbated by a lack of sleep. Getting a good night’s sleep and allowing your body to recover may help alleviate symptoms and make a hangover more bearable.
    3. Stay hydrated
      Drinking alcohol can lead to dehydration in a few different ways. First, alcohol has a diuretic effect. This means that it increases the production of urine, leading to a loss of fluids and electrolytes that are needed for normal functioning.
      Second, excessive amounts of alcohol can cause vomiting, leading to an even further loss of fluids and electrolytes.
      Although dehydration is not the only cause of a hangover, it contributes to many of its symptoms, such as increased thirst, fatigue, headache and dizziness.
      Increasing your water intake may help alleviate some symptoms of hangovers and even prevent them altogether.

    Few home remedies to overcome the ability to reduce hangover symptoms

    1. Ginger
      Ginger is a tried and tested treatment for nausea and seasickness. And that’s why it is considered as one of the best home remedies for a hangover. Ginger gives fast relief by assisting in the digestion of alcohol, thus soothing the stomach.
    2. Lemon
      Lemon juice or lemon tea is a popular home remedy for hangovers. It helps to assimilate alcohol and provides instant relief. The best trait of lemon is that it makes a gentle medicine that can be taken on a possibly upset stomach.
    3. Pickle Juice
      The vinegar, water and sodium combo is the ultimate pick-me-up, combating dehydration and boosting energy. It will help to level out your acid and alkaline levels, but it’s worth adding honey to sweeten it and make it more drinkable.
    4. Raw Fruits
      Eating raw fruits or having a fresh and crunchy fruit salad is an effective way of treating hangovers. Apples and bananas in particular work as effective hangover cures.
    5. Honey
      Honey is one of the simplest and easily available home remedies. It has potent powers to neutralize the harmful effects of alcohol, thanks to the presence of fructose, which competes with the metabolism of alcohol. Honey also helps in the digestion of alcohol inside a person’s body.
    6. Tomato
      Tomato juice contains fructose, a type of sugar that helps your body metabolize alcohol faster. This is why dehydration caused due to a hangover can be compensated by taking freshly prepared tomato juice or soup.
    7. Lime
      Lime is the answer to queasiness, dizziness, sensitivity to light and sound and all kinds of muscle aches caused due to excessive alcohol intake. It offers vitamin C which stabilizes your blood sugar levels.
    8. Cabbage
      The ancient Greeks and Romans placed great importance on the healing powers of cabbage. They would eat large quantities of cabbage at night before drinking, as this would allow them to drink more alcoholic beverages without feeling the side effects. Perhaps this is why many consider cabbage with vinegar a good hangover remedy.

    Preventive Measures for Hangover:

    • Make sure you never take alcohol on an empty stomach. Always eat something before or while you are enjoying your drinks as this will not only slow down the rate at which alcohol enters your blood, but will also reduce the after-effects.
    • Try to alternate between an alcoholic drink and a non-alcoholic beverage. This will lead to an overall reduction in the quantity of alcohol you consume.
    • Prefer clear alcohol, such as white wine, vodka, gin etc. It is believed that the darker the alcoholic drink, the more likely it is to cause hangovers.
    • Avoid sweet and sugary foods after or while you drink. Sweet taste makes it tough for the drinker to judge how much alcohol he/she is actually consuming. It also believed that sugar makes the drink hit you harder.
    • Try not to have a carbonated drink with alcohol as carbonation speeds up the alcohol absorption.
    • Drinking water is the best cure for a hangover. So try to drink as much water as you can while you are drinking.
    • Juice, especially freshly squeezed orange juice, helps raising your blood sugar levels together with easing some of the hangover symptoms. However, if your stomach is upset, skip acidic juices such as orange juice and stick to apple juice instead.

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  • October – Breast Cancer Awareness

    October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, an annual campaign to raise awareness about the impact of breast cancer. Awareness surrounding breast cancer is incredibly important as early detection, often through screening, can catch the disease when it is most treatable.

    The past year has posed a challenge to just about everything, and breast cancer prevention is no exception.

    According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), breast cancer is the most common cancer in American women, except for skin cancers. The average risk of a woman in the U.S. developing breast cancer sometime in her life is about 12% or a 1 in 8 chance. The chance that a woman will die from breast cancer is about 2.6% or a 1 in 38 chance.

    For the past 30 years, NBCF has supported women by helping them get access to the education, screening, and support they need. This is our moment to rise and do even more. Patients are experiencing better outcomes as a result of early diagnosis, state-of-the-art treatment options, and less extensive surgery

    Today, there are more than 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in the U.S., including women still being treated and those who have finished treatment. Patients are experiencing better outcomes as a result of early diagnosis, state-of-the-art treatment options, and less extensive surgery.

    Some Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer ?

    Different people have different symptoms of breast cancer. Some people do not have any signs or symptoms at all.

    Some signs are as follows :

    • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit).
    • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.
    • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.
    • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.
    • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area.
    • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.
    • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast.
    • Pain in any area of the breast.

    Breast Cancer Risk Factors
    The main risk factors for breast cancer include being a woman and getting older (most breast cancers are found in women ages 55 and older). Uncontrollable factors that may increase risk include personal/family history, race, breast density, and menstrual period history. In addition, having changes in certain breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) increases the risk of developing breast cancer.

    How to Lower the Risk of Breast Cancer ?
    Get to and stay at a healthy weight. Balance your food intake with physical activity to avoid excess weight gain.
    Be physically active. Every week, get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity (or a combination of these).
    Limit or avoid alcohol. The ACS recommends that women have no more than one alcoholic drink per day.

    What is a Normal Breast ?
    No breast is typical. What is normal for you may not be normal for another woman. Most women say their breasts feel lumpy or uneven. The way your breasts look and feel can be affected by getting your period, having children, losing or gaining weight, and taking certain medications. Breasts also tend to change as you age.

    Breast Cancer Screening
    Fox Chase Cancer Center follows breast cancer screening guidelines set forth by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Society of Breast Imaging (SBI).

    • All women should have a risk assessment at age 30 to see if screening earlier than age 40 is needed.
    • Women at average breast cancer risk should begin screening at age 40.
    • Women previously diagnosed with breast cancer may also benefit from supplemental screening with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially if their cancer was diagnosed at or before the age of 50.

    Results :
    Of 384 participants, 57% were aware that lump or thickening in the breast could be a sign of breast cancer and 68% knew bleeding or discharge from the nipple as a warning sign of breast cancer. Fortunately, 291 women (75.8%) have good knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, and only 93 women (24.4%) have poor knowledge. Regarding knowledge about the screening of breast cancer, 60.9% knew breast self-examination and clinical breast examination (CBE) are the methods of early detection of breast cancer. About 53.1% of women have heard about CBE.

    Conclusion :
    All the participants showed sufficient knowledge about the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer but insufficient knowledge about screening methods. These findings are encouraging for public awareness about how to screen themselves and guidance to health authorities for developing effective breast healthcare programs in the entire Kingdom for the all-female population.

    Reference Website :

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  • Essential products you must have at home during COVID-19 pandemic

    The pandemic is still growing hugely in several regions of the planet. Undoubtedly, Covid-19 is still hugely spreading and has already infected many people.

    Currently, some of the most effective vaccines of Covid-19 have already been introduced and injected, but still the number of infected people are highly increasing day by day. Maintaining social distancing is the only effective way to avoid the virus. When you are locked at home, there are some essential products, which you should have at home for yourself and your loved ones. Some of those are mentioned below for you.

    Essential products to be kept at home in pandemic

    Face masks: Store face masks at home as much as possible because every time any of you and your loved ones will be stepping out of home, you will be needing a face mask.
    Face shields: Face shields are more useful than face masks. it will also be covering your eyes, nose and mouth because the virus can also be transmitted through eyes.
    Hand sanitizers: These should also be kept at home and should be carried every time any of your family is stepping outside. All of us need to keep both of their hands well-sanitized in this pandemic.
    Hand washes: Hand washes can certainly help you remove all the dirt and dust from your hands quickly that could be the reason for physical diseases if it is consumed internally.
    Thermometer: Thermometers should surely be kept at home to keep monitoring the body temperature. Fever is a mentionable symptom of Covid-19, so a thermometer can also help to get the disease detected.
    Pulse oximeter: Abnormalities of oxygen levels in the blood can be accurately detected by a pulse oximeter. If your oxygen saturation level is low then you should take the D-Dimer test as it is very helpful to find the blood clotting. Learn why d dimer test in covid is very important.
    Disinfecting spray: Keeping a disinfectant spray can help to keep all the massive bulk of luggages sanitized.
    All the above-mentioned essential things should be kept stored at your home as you should avoid stepping out as much as possible and these are the things you will be needing. Stay at home as much as possible and seek medical attention if needed.

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  • More than 100 reasons to quit tobacco

    1. Smokers have a greater risk of developing a severe case and dying from COVID-19.
    2. Everything stinks! From your skin, to your whole house, your clothes, and your fingers and breath.
    3. Tobacco causes teeth to yellow and creates excess dental plaque.
    4. Smoking tobacco and the use of smokeless tobacco cause bad breath.
    5. Tobacco makes your skin wrinkly, making you look older faster. Smoking prematurely ages the skin by wearing away proteins that give the skin elasticity, depleting it of vitamin A and restricting blood flow.
    6. These wrinkles are more apparent around the lips and eyes and tobacco also makes skin leathery and dry.
    7. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of developing psoriasis, a noncontagious inflammatory skin condition that leaves itchy, oozing red patches all over the body.
    8. Over 1 million people die every year from exposure to second-hand smoke.
    9. Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke are at risk of developing lung cancer.
    10. Cigarettes remain an important cause of accidental fires and resulting deaths.
    11. E-cigarettes also expose non-smokers and bystanders to nicotine and other harmful chemicals.
    12. Being exposed to second-hand smoke may increase the risk of progression from tuberculosis infection to active disease.
    13. Being exposed to second-hand smoke is associated with type 2 diabetes.
    14. Smokers’ children suffer reduced lung function, which continues to affect them in the form of chronic respiratory disorders in adulthood.
    15. Exposure of children to e-cigarette liquid continues to pose serious risks. There is a risk of the devices leaking, or of children swallowing the liquid.
    16. E-cigarettes have been known to cause serious injuries, including burns, through fires and explosions.
    17. School-aged children exposed to the harmful effects of second-hand smoke are also at risk for asthma through inflammation of the airways to the lungs.
    18. Children under 2 years of age who are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home could get middle-ear disease possibly leading to hearing loss and deafness.
    19. Quitting smoking decreases the risk of many diseases related to second-hand smoke in children, such as respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) and ear infections.
    20. You want to be a good example for your kids, friends, and loved ones.
    21. Tobacco use can affect social interactions and relationships negatively.
    22. Quitting means there are no restrictions on where you can go – you can mingle socially, without feeling isolated or having to go outside to smoke.
    23. Quitting can make you more productive – you won’t have to stop what you are doing to have a smoke all the time.
    24. One study found that smokers burn through an average of $1.4 million in personal costs, includes spending on cigarettes, medical costs and lower wages brought on by smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.
    25. Tobacco use affects the health and productivity of workers making them prone to missed days at work.
    26. Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco.
    27. Tobacco use burdens the global economy with an estimated US$ 1.4 trillion in healthcare costs for treating the diseases caused by tobacco and lost human capital from tobacco-attributable sickness and death.
    28. Smokers are more likely to experience infertility. Quitting smoking reduces difficulty getting pregnant, having premature births, babies with low birth weights and miscarriage.
    29. Smoking can cause erectile dysfunction. Smoking restricts blood flow to the penis creating an inability to achieve an erection. Erectile dysfunction is more common in smokers and very likely to persist or become permanent unless the man stops smoking early in life.
    30. Smoking also diminishes sperm count, motility and shape of the sperm in men.
    31. Every year, over 8 million people die from tobacco.
    32. Tobacco kills half of its users. Use of tobacco in any form robs you of your health and causes debilitating diseases.
    33. Smoking shisha is just as harmful as other forms of tobacco use.
    34. Chewing tobacco can cause mouth cancer, tooth loss, brown teeth, white patches and gum disease.
    35. The nicotine in smokeless tobacco is more easily absorbed than by smoking cigarettes enhancing its addictiveness.
    36. Tobacco growers are exposed to ill health by nicotine that is absorbed through the skin, as well as exposure to heavy pesticides and exposure to tobacco dust.
    37. In some countries, children are employed in tobacco farming, which impacts not only their health, but also their ability to attend school.
    38. Tobacco use can worsen poverty since tobacco users are at much higher risk of falling ill and dying prematurely of cancers, heart attacks, respiratory diseases or other tobacco-related diseases, depriving families of much-needed income and imposing additional costs for health care.
    39. The vast majority employed in the overall tobacco sector earn very little, while the big tobacco companies reap enormous profits.
    40. Heated tobacco products (HTPs) expose users to toxic emissions many of which can cause cancer.
    41. Heated tobacco products are themselves tobacco products, therefore, switching from conventional tobacco products to HTPs does not equal quitting.
    42. There is insufficient evidence to support the claim that heated tobacco products (HTPs) are less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes.
    43. Children and adolescents who use e-cigarettes at least double their chance of smoking cigarettes later in life.
    44. E-cigarette use increases your risk of heart disease and lung disorders.
    45. Nicotine in e-cigarettes is a highly addictive drug that can damage children’s developing brains.
    46. Tobacco use is responsible for 25% of all cancer deaths globally.
    47. Smokers are up to 22 times more likely to develop lung cancer in their lifetime than non-smokers. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, causing over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally.
    48. One in five tobacco smokers will develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in their lifetime, especially people who start smoking during their childhood and teenage years, since tobacco smoke significantly slows lung growth and development.
    49. Smoking can exacerbate asthma in adults, restricting their activity, contributing to disability and increasing the risk of severe asthma attacks requiring emergency care.
    50. Tobacco smoking more than doubles the risk of transforming tuberculosis from a latent state to an active state, and is also known to worsen the natural progression of the disease. About one quarter of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis.
    51. Just a few cigarettes a day, occasional smoking, or exposure to second-hand smoke increase the risk of heart disease.
    52. Tobacco smokers have up to twice the risk of stroke and a fourfold increased risk of heart disease.
    53. Tobacco smoke damages the arteries of the heart, causing the build-up of plaque and development of blood clots, thereby restricting blood flow and eventually leading to heart attacks and strokes.
    54. Use of nicotine and tobacco products increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    55. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use cause oral cancer, cancers of the lips, throat (pharynx and larynx) and oesophagus.
    56. Surgical removal of the cancerous larynx can lead to the need for tracheostomy, the creation of a hole in the neck and windpipe that allows the patient to breathe.
    57. Smokers are at a significantly higher risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia; cancer of the nasal and paranasal sinus cavities; colorectal, kidney, liver, pancreatic, stomach or ovarian cancer; and cancer of the lower urinary tract (including the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis).
    58. Some studies have also demonstrated a link between tobacco smoking and an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly among heavy smokers and women who start smoking before their first pregnancy.
    59. Smoking is also known to increase the risk of cervical cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus.
    60. Smoking causes many eye diseases which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent vision loss.
    61. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to develop age-related macular degeneration, a condition that results in irreversible vision loss.
    62. Smokers also have a higher risk of cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens that blocks light. Cataracts cause vision impairment, and surgery is the only option to restore vision.
    63. Some evidence suggests that smoking also causes glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure in the eye and can damage eyesight.
    64. Adult smokers are more likely to suffer hearing loss.
    65. Lifelong tobacco smokers lose at least 10 years of life on average.
    66. With every puff of a cigarette, toxins and carcinogens are delivered to the body, at least 70 of the chemicals are known to cause cancer.
    67. The risk of developing diabetes is higher in smokers.
    68. Smoking is a risk factor for dementia, a group of disorders that result in mental decline.
    69. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, and an estimated 14% of Alzheimer’s cases globally can be attributed to smoking.
    70. Women who smoke are more likely to experience painful menstruation and more severe menopausal symptoms.
    71. Menopause occurs 1–4 years earlier in female smokers because smoking reduces the production of eggs in the ovaries, resulting in a loss of reproductive function and subsequent low estrogen levels.
    72. Tobacco smoke reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues.
    73. Tobacco use restricts blood flow which, if left untreated, can lead to gangrene (death of body tissue) and amputation of affected areas.
    74. Tobacco use increases the risk of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disease that wears away at the gums and destroys the jawbone, leading to tooth loss.
    75. Tobacco smokers are at significantly higher risk than non-smokers for post-surgical complications.
    76. Tobacco smokers are harder to wean off mechanical ventilation. This often lengthens their intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay, potentially exposing them to other infection.
    77. Smokers are likely to experience gastrointestinal disorders, such as stomach ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, associated with abdominal cramps, persistent diarrhea, fever and rectal bleeding, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
    78. Smokers are more likely to lose bone density, fracture more easily and experience serious complications, such as delayed healing or failure to heal.
    79. Components of tobacco smoke weaken the immune system, putting smokers at risk of pulmonary infections.
    80. Smokers with a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disorders are at an increased risk of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, bacterial meningitis, postsurgical infection, and cancers.
    81. Smoking also puts immune-compromised individuals, such as those living with cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis or cancer, at a higher risk of disease-related comorbidities and premature death.
    82. The immunosuppressive effects of tobacco put people living with HIV at an increased risk of developing AIDS. Among HIV-positive smokers, the average length of life lost is 12.3 years, more than double the number of years lost by HIV-positive non-smokers.
    83. Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase the risk for fetal death.
    84. Women who smoke or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk of miscarriage.
    85. Stillbirths (the delivery of fetuses that have died in the womb) are also more common owing to fetal oxygen deprivation and placental abnormalities induced by carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke and by nicotine in tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco.
    86. Smokers are at higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, a potentially fatal complication for the mother in which the fertilized egg attaches outside the uterus.
    87. Smoking cessation and protection from exposure to second-hand smoke are especially important for women of reproductive age planning to become pregnant and during pregnancy.
    88. E-cigarettes pose significant risks to pregnant women who use them, as they can damage the growing fetus.
    89. Infants born to women who smoke, use smokeless tobacco, or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight.
    90. Governments and local authorities pay to clean up tobacco waste, not the tobacco companies themselves. Quit tobacco to protect the environment.
    91. Cigarette butts are among the most commonly discarded piece of waste globally and are the most frequent item of litter picked up on beaches and water edges worldwide.
    92. Hazardous substances have been identified in cigarette butts – including arsenic, lead, nicotine and formaldehyde. These substances are leached from discarded butts into aquatic environments and soil.
    93. Tobacco smoke can measurably contribute to air pollution levels in a city.
    94. Most cigarettes are lit using matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for example, one wooden match is used to light two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes smoked globally each year would require the destruction of about nine million trees to produce three trillion matches.
    95. E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products may contain batteries that require special disposal as well as chemicals, packaging and other non-biodegradable materials.
    96. Currently, the majority of plastic e-cigarette liquid cartridges are not reusable or recyclable – transnational companies tend to sell disposable ones, presumably to boost sales via repeat customers.
    97. Tobacco production emissions are estimated to equate 3 million transatlantic flights.
    98. Tobacco smoke contains three kinds of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides and pollutes indoor and outdoor environments.
    99. Worldwide, approximately 200 000 hectares are for tobacco agriculture and curing each year.
    100. Deforestation for tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
    101. Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemicals – including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. These chemicals may affect drinking water sources as a result of run-off from tobacco growing areas.
    102. For every 300 cigarettes produced (roughly 1.5 cartons), one tree is required to cure the tobacco leaf alone.
    103. With 6 trillion cigarettes manufactured annually, about 300 billion packages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) are made for tobacco products. Assuming each empty pack weighs about six grams, this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes of packaging waste, composed of paper, ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste from cartons and boxes used for distribution and packing brings the total annual solid post-consumption waste to at least 2 000 000 tonnes.
    104. Tobacco smoke leaves behind a toxic residue, known as thirdhand smoke, that sticks to surfaces (such as walls, floors, clothes, and furniture) and collects in house dust. This residue can persist for years without proper removal and exposure to it is harmful, especially for babies and children.

    Source : https://www.who.int

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  • Important contact numbers you should know in this COVID 19

    • कोरोना भाइरसका लक्षण भएका व्यक्तिले सोधपुछ गर्नको लागि
      हटलाइन : ११३३
      मोबाइल : ९८५१२५५८३९
    • कोरोना भाइरससँग लक्षण मिल्ने कुनै पनि स्वास्थ्य समस्या देखिए फोन गर्ने नम्बरहरू
      डा. श्रवण कुमार मिश्र ९८५१२६८२२०
      डा. रञ्जित शाह ९८७२७०१४६५
      राजेश कुमार गुप्ता ९८५१२३९९८८
      दिनेश थापा मगर ९८२३१६८५४०
      नरेश थापा मगर ९८०३१५२१४९
    • स्वास्थ्यमा जुनसुकै समस्या आईपरेपनि फोन गर्न मिल्ने नम्बर :
      डा.लोचन कार्की, फिजिसियन ९८५१०५६६८९
      डा. शिव प्रसाद श्रेष्ठ, बालरोग ९८५१०५७१९०
      डा.अनिल विक्रम कार्की, नाक कान घाँटी ९८०४२५९२८३
      डा.बद्रि रिजाल, हाडजोर्नी, ९८५११४८६९९
      डा. प्रकाश बुढाथोकी, दन्तरोग ९८४१३३६९४३
      डा. निरज कुमार सिह, फिजिसियन ९८४९२२८९०३
      डा. विश्वराज दबाडी, फेमिली फिजिशियन ९८४१२२६३२२
      डा. बिपेश आचार्य, प्याथोलोजिष्ट , ९८५१०७३४
      डा. लिजन महर्जन, नाक कान र घाटी ९८४११९०२५८
      डा.नन्द कुमारी गुरुङ, आखाँ ९८४७०३१४८६
      डा. प्रमोद जोशी, हाड जोर्नी ९८४१५२५६७०
      डा. रितेश थापा, मानसिक रोग, ९८४१५५६४१२
      डा. सञ्जिब तिवारी, फेमिली फिजिसियन, ९८५११६७७२२

    प्रदेश नम्बर १ का अस्पतालका नम्बर :

    भोजपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२९–४२०१८८
    धनकुटा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२६–५२०१३५
    इलाम जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२७–५२००३३
    मेची अञ्चल अस्पताल (झापा) ०२३–५२०१७२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल दिक्तेल (खोटाङ) ०३६–४२०५७६
    कोशी अञ्चल अस्पताल (मोरङ बिराटनगर) ०२१–५७०१०३ र ०२१–५३०१०३ र ९८५२०२१७४१
    ओखलढुङ्गा अस्पताल :९८५२८४१११६
    मनाङ अस्पताल : ०६६–४४०१९७ /९८६१२४२७८३/ ९८४१३६३६५५
    पाँचथर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२४–५२०१८८
    सङ्खुवासभा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२९–५६०१८८
    सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०३८–५२०१८८
    सुनसरी जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२५–५६०११९
    ताप्लेजुङ जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२४–४६०८७७
    तेह्रथुम जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०२६–४६०१८८
    उदयपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल : ०३५–४२०१८७

    प्रदेश नम्बर २ का अस्पतालका नम्बर:

    नारायणी उप–क्षेत्रिय अस्पताल (पर्सा) ०५१–५२१०५३
    बारा जिल्ला अस्पताल : ९८४३८७८८२५
    जनस्वास्थ्य कार्यालय रौतहट : ९८५२०२६८९२
    सर्लाही जिल्ला अस्पताल : ९८४४०३८७४९
    जिल्ला स्वास्थ्य अस्पताल सिरहा : ९८५२८३४८८१
    जनकपुर अञ्चल अस्पताल (धनुषा०)०४१–५२०९१८/९८४५४०९५०२
    सगरमाथा अञ्चल अस्पताल (सप्तरी) ९८१६०७७९८५ /०३१–५२०१२७
    महोत्तरी : जलेश्वर अस्पताल ९८४९४७६७९३, बर्दिबास अस्पताल ९८१५३९४२०३

    बाग्मती प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर :

    सिन्धुली जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४७–५२०१४५
    रामेछाप जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४८–४००११४
    दोलखा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०४९–४००१११
    भक्तपुर जिल्ला अस्पताल ०१–६६१०७९८, ०१–६६१६०१०
    धादिङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०१०–५२०१३०
    धुलिखेल अस्पताल, काभ्रेपलान्चोक ०११–४९०४९७
    पाटन अस्पताल, ललितपुर ०१–५५२२२९५र०१–५५२२२७८ र ०१–५५२२२६६
    त्रिशुली अस्पताल, नुवाकोट ०१०–५६०२३१र ०१०–५६०१८८
    रसुवा अस्पताल, रसुवा ०१०–५४०२४५
    चौतारा अस्पताल, सिन्धुपाल्चोक ०११–६२०१०३, ०११–६२०३४४
    भरतपुर अस्पताल, चितवन ०५६–५२०१११, ०५६–५२४३००, ०५६–५२४०९०
    हेटौडा अस्पताल, मकवानपुर ०५७–५२०३०५
    काठमाडौंका अस्पताल
    त्रि। वि। शिक्षण अस्पताल ०१–४४१२३०३र०१–४४१२५०५, ०१–४४१२६०५
    वीर अस्पताल ०१–४२२१११९
    निजामति कर्मचारी अस्पताल ०१–४१०७०००
    श्री वीरेन्द्र अस्पताल ०१–४२७१९४१
    शुक्रराज ट्रपिकल तथा सरुवा रोग अस्पताल ०१–४२५३३३९६
    नेपाल सशस्त्र प्रहरी बल अस्पताल ०१–४२७०५५३

    गण्डकी प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    बागलुङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६८–५२०२८८ र ०६८५२०१८८
    पर्वत जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६७–४२०११९ र ९८५७६२१११९
    कास्कीका अस्पताल ०६१–५२०४६१ र ०६१–५२०३९०
    तनहुँ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६५–५६०२०३ र ०६५–४१४३७७
    गोरखा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६४–४२०९१८
    लमजुङका अस्पताल ९८५६०४६११९ र ०६६–५२०११९
    मनाङ अस्पताल ०६६–४४०१९७ र ९८६१२४२७८३ र ९८४१३६३६५५
    मुस्ताङ जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६९–४४०२९१ र ९८५७६४९५५५ र ९८४६७२३०८१र ९८६७३०९४१६
    म्याग्दी जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६९–५२०५२५र ९८५७६२३१८८ र ९८५६०५९७०१
    नवलपुर अस्पताल ०७८–५४०५३१
    स्याङजा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०६३–४२०२३९ र ९८४००७१२८४

    लुम्बिनी प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    कपिलवस्तु जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७६–५६०२००
    नवलपरासी अस्पताल ०७८–५८०४०४
    अर्घाखाँची जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७७–४२०२५७
    गुल्मी जिल्ला अस्पताल ०७९–५२००५०
    पाल्पा अस्पताल ०७५–५२०१५४
    मिसन अस्पताल ०७५२०१११
    लुम्बिनी मेडिकल कलेज :०७५४११२०१
    राप्ती उपक्षत्रीय अस्पताल दाङ ०८२–५६२३६५
    प्युठान जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८६–४६००५६
    रोल्पा अस्पताल ९८४९४०२५१९, ९८५७८२२१९७
    पूर्वी रूकुम जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–४१३१४५
    भेरी अञ्चल अस्पताल, नेपालगञ्ज बाँके ०८१–५२०१२०
    बर्दिया जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८४–४२११७७
    रुपन्देही, भिम अस्पताल ९८१२४८८७४९
    लुम्बिनी प्रादेशिक अस्पताल ०७१–५४०२००

    कर्णाली प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बर

    जुम्ला जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–५२०३५५
    हुम्ला जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–६८०१२०
    कालिकोट जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–४४०१३३
    मुगु जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–४६०१६१
    डोल्पा जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८७–५५०११० र ९८४८१४०३६३
    सल्यान जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–५२००६१
    रुकुम जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८८–५३०११५
    दैलेख जिल्ला अस्पताल ०८९–४२०१२७
    जाजरकोट जिल्ला स्वास्थ्य कार्यालय ०८९–४३०१२०
    सुर्खेत क्षेत्रीय अस्पताल ०८३–५२०२००

    सुदुरपश्चिम प्रदेशका अस्पतालका नम्बरहरु

    जिल्ला अस्पताल अछाम ०९७–६२०१८८, ९७–६२५०६२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बैतडी ०९५–५२०५१४
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बझाङ ०९२–४२१०१८
    जिल्ला अस्पताल बाजुरा ०९७–५४१०१३
    उप–क्षेत्रीय अस्पताल डडेल्धुरा ०९६–४१०२५४,
    चिरीन्जोबी अस्पताल ०९६–४२०७८०,
    जोगबुढा अस्पताल ०९६–४११००८
    जिल्ला अस्पताल दार्चुला ०९३–४२०१८८, ९८४८८९६७२०
    गोकुलेश्वर अस्पताल ९३–४०००८८,९८४८९०४८१९, ९८६५६७०८८२
    जिल्ला अस्पताल डोटी ०९४–४२०११४
    सेती अञ्चल अस्पताल, कैलाली ०९१–५२१२७१,
    टिकापुर अस्पताल ०९१–५६०१५०,
    घोडाघोडी अस्पताल ०९१–४०३१०७
    महाकाली अञ्चल अस्पताल, कञ्चनपुर ०९९–५२११११

    Date : 1st May 2021

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  • Impact of Vitamins on Immune Function in COVID-19 Patients

    The whole world is dealing with COVID-19 in the absence of effective treatments, attention has focused on modalities that may help boost the immune system. A recent review examined the possible role of nutrition or diet components in COVID-19.

    Patients infected with SAR-CoV-2 who are vitamin D–deficient do not fare as well as those who are vitamin D–replete, which has led investigators to consider the possible immunomodulatory role of vitamin D. Vitamin D’s potential benefit stems from its ability to stimulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides, which help maintain the integrity of epithelial tight junctions; enhancement of the expression of antioxidant genes leading to a reduction in inflammation; promotion of macrophage and superoxide production; phagocytosis; suppression of T-helper type-1 activity; reduction of proinflammatory cytokine production; enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines; and stimulation of suppressive regulatory T-cells.

    Vitamin D deficiency has also been implicated in comorbid disease states that are risk factors for the coronavirus infection as well as in advanced age, which has been associated with a poorer outcome from COVID-19. Adequate vitamin D levels may be inversely correlated with C-reactive protein expression, a marker of inflammation, and with a decreased risk of coagulopathy and immunosuppression. Protein targets on SARS-CoV-2 may be regulated by vitamin D. While not yet proven effective in COVID-19, vitamin D use has been associated with a reduction in the incidence and severity of other viral infections and may reduce proinflammatory cytokines, which are associated with more severe disease and increased mortality in COVID-19.

    Vitamin C, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, has antioxidant activities and deficiencies are associated with disturbances in the balance between antioxidant activity and oxidant generation. Vitamin C supplementation may be preventive against viral infections and may reduce their duration and severity. It reduces proinflammatory cytokines, which are activated in COVID-19 and may play a role in cytokine storm; enhances anti-inflammatory cytokines; reduces TNF-alpha levels, a proinflammatory cytokine that may facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells; and increases IL-10 levels, which in turn reduces inflammation. Vitamin C has a role in sepsis secondary to pneumonia, and COVID-19 patients are at a higher risk of developing pneumonia.

    Zinc, a key trace mineral, is thought to have immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. Adverse physiological effects associated with zinc deficiency include an increase in proinflammatory cytokines; remodeling of lung tissue; changes to the cell-barrier function in lung epithelial tissue; reduction in lymphocyte counts; and impairment of lymphocyte function. Zinc interferes with viral synthesis and replication, including that of coronaviruses. In COVID-19, zinc supplementation may reduce symptoms, such as lower respiratory tract infection, by inhibiting viral uncoating, binding, and replication.

    Omega-3-fatty acids have been found to have antiviral properties against influenza. Their role in COVID-19 remains controversial with both improvement in oxygenation observed and increased susceptibility to oxidative membrane damage.

    Other compounds that may have immunomodulatory effects in COVID-19 include vitamin E, selenium, magnesium, and vitamin A; however, more research is needed in this area.

    While information involving COVID-19 is still evolving, understanding the potential mechanisms by which vitamins and supplements may be beneficial in COVID-19 will help pharmacists educate patients about their proper use.

    The content contained in this article is for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice. Reliance on any information provided in this article is solely at your own risk.
    Reference : uspharmacist.com

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  • Tuberculosis (TB)

    Tuberculosis is a contagious infection that usually attacks our lungs. It is caused by infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb). Tb can be fatal ,but in many cases , it is preventable as well as treatable. It can develop when bacteria spread through droplets in the air.

    Globally , Tuberculosis is a major public health problem.Despite the long history of tuberculosis prevention efforts ,it still ranks among the top ten causes of death in Nepal.In the 20th century Tb was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today,most cases are cured with the help of Antibiotics.But it requires a long time .We need to take medication for at least 6 to 9 months .There are two types of Tuberculosis.
    1. Latent Tuberculosis
    2. Active Tuberculosis:

    Latent Tuberculosis:
    You don’t have any symptoms ,but the infection is still alive and can one day become active.You have the germs in your body ,but your immune system keeps them from spreading.If you are at high risk for re-activation for instance ,if you have HIV, you had an infection in past 2years ,your chest X-ray is unusual or your immune system is weakened your doctor will give you medication to prevent.

    Active Tuberculosis:
    The germs multiply and make you sick. You can spread the disease to others. Ninety percent of active cases in adults come from a latent TB infection.
    A latent or active TB infection can also be drug-resistant, meaning certain medications don’t work against the bacteria.

    Latent TB doesn’t have symptoms. A skin or blood test can tell if you have it.
    General Symptoms :

    • A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks
    • Chest pain
    • Coughing up blood
    • Feeling tired all the time
    • Night sweats
    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss

    TB Prevention – Precautions, masks & vaccines:
    Firstly there is a need to stop the transmission of TB from one adult to another.
    This is done through firstly, identifying people with active TB, and then curing them through the provision of drug treatment. With proper TB treatment someone with TB will very quickly not be infectious and so can no longer spread TB to others
    If someone is not on treatment, then precautions such as cough etiquette, must be taken to prevent TB spreading from one adult to another.

    Anything which increases the number of people infected by each infectious person, such as ineffective treatment because of drug resistant TB, reduces the overall effect of the main TB prevention efforts. The presence of TB and HIV infection together also increases the number of people infected by each infectious person. As a result it is then more likely that globally the number of people developing active TB will increase rather than decrease.

    Other TB prevention activities:

    There are several other TB prevention activities. This includes preventing people with latent TB from developing active, and infectious, TB disease.
    TB infection control including the use of masks & respirators, which means preventing the transmission of TB in such settings as hospitals & prisons.
    The pasteurization of milk also helps to prevent humans from getting bovine TB.
    There is a vaccine for TB, but it makes only a small contribution to TB prevention. It does little to interrupt the transmission of TB among adults.

    TB Prevention – the BCG vaccine:
    The vaccine called Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was first developed in the 1920s. It is one of the most widely used of all current vaccines, and it reaches more than 80% of all newborn children and infants in countries where it is part of the national childhood immunization programme.2 However, it is also one of the most variable vaccines in routine use.
    The BCG vaccine has been shown to provide children with excellent protection against the disseminated forms of TB. However protection against pulmonary TB in adults is variable. Since most transmission originates from adult cases of pulmonary TB, the BCG vaccine is generally used to protect children, rather than to interrupt transmission among adults.
    The BCG vaccine will often result in the person vaccinated having a positive result to a TB skin test.

    TB education:
    TB education is necessary for people with TB. People with TB need to know how to take their TB drugs properly. They also need to know how to make sure that they do not pass TB on to other people. But TB education is also necessary for the general public. The public needs to know basic information about TB for a number of reasons including reducing the stigma still associated with TB.

    TB treatment as TB prevention:
    TB drug treatment for the prevention of TB, also known as chemoprophylaxis, can reduce the risk of a first episode of active TB occurring in people with latent TB. The treatment of latent TB is being used as a tool to try and eliminate TB in the United States.
    Isoniazid is one of the drugs used to prevent latent TB from progressing to active TB or TB disease. Isoniazid is a cheap drug, but in a similar way to the use of the BCG vaccine, it is mainly used to protect individuals rather than to interrupt transmission between adults. This is because children rarely have infectious TB, and it is hard to administer isoniazid on a large scale to adults who do not have any symptoms. Taking isoniazid daily for six months is difficult in respect of adherence, and as a result many individuals who could benefit from the treatment, stop taking the drug before the end of the six month period.
    There have also been concerns about the possible impact of TB treatment for prevention programmes on the emergence of drug resistance. However, a review of the scientific evidence has now shown that there is no need for this to be a concern. The benefit of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV, and who have, or may have had latent TB, has also recently been emphasized.

    National Tuberculosis Program : Bhaktapur
    The National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is fully integrated within the general primary health care system of the Government of Nepal. The National Tuberculosis Control Centre (NTCC) is the focal point of the NTP. It is responsible for formulating program policies, strategy and planning.
    Central laboratory at the NTCC is the focal point for the NTP laboratory network, which is responsible for policy and guideline development, training, quality control and supervision. Technical support, monitoring and evaluation, training, supervision, logistics, health education, communication, and research are key functions of NTCC.
    Furthermore, quantification and procurement and supply of anti-tuberculosis drugs are key responsibilities of the NTCC. The NTCC is procuring both first and second line anti TB drugs for the TB patients from Global Drug Facility (GDF). Drugs are distributed through the system of Logistics Management Division of the Department of Health Services. NTCC has also established a Program Management Unit (PMU) at the central level for overall management of the Global Fund grants and provides technical inputs to formulate policies, program, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for the program.
    At the Regional level, NTP activities are planned and carried out in coordination and cooperation with the Regional Health Directorate. The Regional Tuberculosis Centre (RTC) in Pokhara provides technical support to TB control activities in the Western Region in coordination with NTCC. There are full time permanent Regional TB Leprosy Officers (RTLO) appointed in each region. Regional levels are responsible for program implementation within the regions. In addition, the regional office is responsible for training, monitoring & evaluation and supervision of program activities. Regional office also provides logistical support, supply of TB drugs and other requirements through Regional Logistic Management Division.

    World Tuberculosis Day was marked here today with the theme ‘Wanted: leaders for a TB-free world’.
    “It is an effort to end TB” said Dr Kedar Narsingh KC, director at National Tuberculosis Center.
    To meet the Sustainable Development Goals, Nepal has to eradicate TB by 2030, however, increasing cases of multidrug resistant TB have turned out to be a major hurdle in achieving SDGS.
    Health practitioners themselves are suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. It is estimated that there are 1,000 MDR-TB cases in the country. From among 1,000 patients only 400 are receiving treatment through DOTS centres under the National Tuberculosis Programme, according to Dr KC.
    Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications. “The tendency of TB patients dropping out of treatment is increasing as the treatment course spans over 24 months. Irregular medication among TB patients leads to resistance to first-line anti-TB medications. These patients are ultimately diagnosed with MDR-TB,” said Dr KC.
    The World Health Organisation estimates that there were 600,000 new cases with resistance to rifampicin, the most effective first-line drug, of which 490,000 had MDR-TB. Along with the multi-drug resistant patients there are at least 11,000 to 13,000 patients who are not seeking any treatment. It is estimated that some 45,000 new cases of tuberculosis are added each year. As per National Tuberculosis Centre, in 2016/17, a total of 31,764 cases were registered under National Tuberculosis Programme.

    Anti-Tuberculosis Association(NATA) : Kalimati
    Nepal Anti Tuberculosis Association (NATA) is a non-governmental, non-profit making social voluntary organization established in 1953 A.D. with a view to promoting tuberculosis control programs through raising public awareness and adopting preventive and curative measures.
    NATA is registered with the District Administration Office in Kathmandu. NATA is affiliated to International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Social Welfare Council (SWC), Nepal. It is also one of the prominent members of the South East Asian Region (SEAR).
    NATA has a long history of close coordination and collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP), ministry of health as one of the oldest key partners. NATA has been playing an active role in controlling TB to the best of its capacity by expanding and making its preventive and curative services more effective in line with national policies and strategies through mobilization of its 35 district branches and active volunteers in close coordination and co-operation with various local, national and international organizations.
    To help the patients of Tuberculosis and Lungs disease in all possible ways
    To generate public awareness about the menace of TB and other diseases like Lungs, HIV, etc. through various awareness raising campaigns.
    To study the problems of TB in Nepal and adopt various measures (preventive and curative) for the control of diseases.
    To make curative service accessible and affordable to marginalized, underprivileged and unreached population affected by TB ensuring the quality of service
    To conduct study and research activities on scientific and social aspects of TB
    To support National Tuberculosis Control Program to fight against Tuberculosis in Nepal
    To seek friendly cooperation and mutual exchange of ideas among various institutions, associations and organizations devoted to anti-TB work all over the world.
    To provide all types of curative facilities for the treatment of tuberculosis and other lungs related diseases.


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  • लकडाउन छ, घरैमा औषधि चाहियो ? अनलाइन औषधिलाई सम्पर्क गर्नुस्

    लकडाउन छ । घरमा औषधि चाहिएको छ । यो समयमा सबैको सहयोगी बनेको छ । अनलाइन औषधि ।

    फोन गरेर, इमेल गरेर वा म्यासेज पठाएर यी सबै कार्य गर्न सकिन्छ । अनलाइन औषधिका प्रतिनिधि घरैमा आइपुग्छन् ।

    हाल यसरी घरैमा औषधि उपलब्ध गराउने धेरै अनलाइन सुविधा उपलब्ध छन् । तर अनलाइन अ‍ैषधि भने यसरी सेवा उपलब्ध गराउने पहिलो संस्था भएको यसका सञ्चालक सञ्जिव सिंह बताउँछन् । अनलाइन औषधि नेपालकै पहिलो अनलाइन फार्मेसी सिष्टम भएको उनको दावी छ ।

    अनलाइन औषधिले यो भन्दा पहिले २०७२ सालको महाभूकम्पको समयमा पनि यसरी नै सेवा उपलब्ध गराएको थियो ।

    यो कार्यमा सञ्जिव र उनकी बहिनी सबी सिंहको आइडियाले भूमिका खेलेको छ । उनीहरुले राजधानीको कालिमाटीस्थित एसएम फर्मा समेत सञ्चालन गरिरहेका छन् । सो फर्मा कालिमाटी क्षेत्रमा पहिले देखि नै प्रचलित लोकप्रिय औषधि पसल हो । उनीहरुले त्यही फर्मालाई अहिले अलि फरक तरिकाले चलाएका हुन् ।

    पहिले देखि नै प्रचलित औषधि पसलमार्फत औषधि उनीहरुले अहिले ग्राहकको घरैमा पु-याइरहेका छन् ।अनलाइन औषधिले अन्य फार्मेसीले जस्तै विरामीलाई औषधि उपलब्ध गराउने भए पनि यसको प्रक्रिया मात्र फरक भएको बताइएको छ । सञ्जिव भन्छन् ‘हामीले विरामीको घर वा अफिसमै औषधि पु¥याइदिन्छौ । यसका लागि फार्मेसी सम्म पुग्नु पर्दैन ।’

    अनलाइन औषधिको यात्रा सामान्य रुपमा प्रारम्भ भएको थियो । बी.इ.आई.टी पढ्दै गर्दा सञ्जीवले कलेजमा एउटा प्रोजेक्ट बुझाउनुपर्ने थियो, सूचना(प्रविधिमा आफ्नो दक्षता प्रदर्शन गर्न । उनले छानेको प्रोजेक्टले सबै जना आश्चर्यमा परे ।

    ‘मैले यस्तो सफ्टवेयर बनाएँ, जसको प्रयोगले औषधी पसलको स्टक व्यवस्थापन गर्न सकिन्छ’, उनले भने, ‘औषधी पसलमा थुप्रै औषधी हुन्छन्, कुन चाहिँको मिति सकियो र कुनको स्टक सकियो हेरिरहन निकै गाह्रो हुन्छ ।’

    उनले बनाएको सफ्टवेयरले यो सबै समस्या केही हदसम्म समाधान गरिदिएको थियो ।

    उनीहरूका बुवा सूर्यमान सिंहको केही वर्षअघि निधन हुँदा उनीहरूको औषधि पसल ‘अटो पाइलट’ मा गइसकेको थियो । औषधिका थोक बिक्रेताले सबै सामान आफैं ल्याइदिन्थे । पसल चलाउँन खासै मिहिनेत नलाग्ने भइसकेको थियो । कलेज सकेर सबी भने स्वास्थ्य सेवा विभागमा काम गर्न थालिसकेकी थिइन् ।

    सञ्जीव भने एउटा आइटी कम्पनीमा संलग्न थिए । अनलाइन औषधी पसलको आइडिया भने उनीहरूलाई निकै पछि मात्रै आएको थियो ।

    अनलाइन औषधिमार्फत औषधि अर्डर गर्नका लागि विभिन्न बिकल्प उपलब्ध छन् । प्रविधिका अन्य माध्यम उपयोग गर्न नजाने पनि सामान्य रुपमा फोन गरेकै भरमा पनि औषधि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ ।

    ‘एकदिन अफिसका साथीहरूसँग कुरा गर्दै गर्दा मैले आफूले पहिले औषधी पसल व्यवस्थापन गर्ने सफ्टवेयर बनाएको कुरा गर्दै थिएँ’, उनी भन्छन्( ‘त्यत्तिकैमा एक जना साथीले सोधे, ‘अनलाइन औषधी पसल किन नखोल्ने त ?’

    धेरै समय अनलाइन औषधी पसलको कुरा उनको दिमागमा चलिरह्यो । केही दिनपछि उनले यो विषयमा बहिनी सबीसँग कुरा गरे । सबीले तुरून्तै सकारात्मक प्रतिक्रिया दिइन् ।

    ‘हामीले काम सुरू गर्दा काठमाडौंमा अनलाइन व्यापार निकै फस्टाएको थियो । इलेक्ट्रोनिक्स र लुगा अनलाइन किन्न पाइन्छ, तर औषधी किन किन्न पाइन्न रु’, यो सोच जन्मिँदाको समय सम्झन्छिन् उनी ।

    छिटै सबै तारतम्य मिल्दै गयो र कामले गति लियो । उनीहरूले आफ्नो बलिया पक्षहरूको बारेमा बल्ल जानकारी पाए । उनीहरूसँग नेपालभर फैलिएको औषधी व्यवसायको सञ्जालमा पहुँच थियो र त्यसको प्रयोग गरेर सबैजसो औषधी मगाउन सकिन्थ्यो, त्यो पनि निकै छोटो समयमा । सञ्जीवले नयाँ कम्पनीका लागि सफ्टवेयर बनाए ।

    केही महिनाभित्रै दुवै जना मिलेर नयाँ कम्पनी दर्ता गरे, घर-घर औषधि ‘डेलिभरी’ गर्ने ।

    त्यसपछि यसले औषधि डेलिभरी गर्ने काम गरिरहेको छ । तर यसरी औषधि पु¥याउने काम मात्र अनलाइन औषधिले गर्दैन । यसका साथै विरामीको सम्पूर्ण रेकर्ड राखेर बीचमा समेत औषधिका लागि सम्झाउने र झक्झक्याउने काम समेत गर्छ । अनलाइन औषधिले ग्राहकको सबै प्रेस्क्रिप्सन रेकर्ड राख्ने र पुरै ट्रिटमेन्ट हिस्ट्री नै हेर्न मिल्ने गरी राख्छ । यसको अर्थ कुनै पनि ग्राहकको हेल्थ बायोडाटा तयार गरेर राख्छ । यसका आधारमा ग्राहकको सम्पूर्ण विवरण कुनै पनि समयमा हेर्न सकिन्छ ।

    विरामीको औषधि सकिने समय भयो भने पहिले नै कल गरेर सम्झाउने काम पनि अनलाइन औषधिले गर्छ । त्यसैगरी उनीहरुका लागि आवश्यक औषधि कमसेकम तीन महिनाका लागि पुग्ने गरी स्टक समेत राख्ने गर्छ ।

    ग्राहकका लागि यी वाहेक अन्य विभिन्न जानकारीमूलक सामग्री समेत अनलाइन औषधिले उपलब्ध गराउदै आएको छ । उनीहरुको स्वस्थ जीवनका लागि विभिन्न टिप्सहरु उपलब्ध गराउने उद्देश्यले ब्लग साइट नै उपलब्ध गराएको छ । यहाँ स्वास्थ्यका लागि आवश्यक टिप्सहरु अध्ययन गर्न र व्यवहारमा लागू गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी वेबपोर्टल https://www.onlineaushadhi.com/ मार्फत विभिन्न औषधिहरुको विस्तृत विवरण थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । यसमा ३० हजार भन्दा बढी औषधिको वारेमा जानकारी लिनुका साथै अन्य हेल्थ इक्विपमेन्टको वारेमा समेत थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ ।

    यसको फेसबुक पेज https://www.facebook.com/healthtips.onlineaushadhi/ मार्फत पनि धेरै कुरा थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ ।

    अनलाइन औषधिमार्फत औषधि अर्डर गर्नका लागि विभिन्न बिकल्प उपलब्ध छन् । प्रविधिका अन्य माध्यम उपयोग गर्न नजाने पनि सामान्य रुपमा फोन गरेकै भरमा पनि औषधि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ । यसका लागि ९८४१५६८५६८ मा कल गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी फेसबुक म्यासेन्जर, भाइबर र ह्वाट्सएपमा म्यासेज गर्न सकिन्छ । त्यसैगरी इमेलमार्फत पनि अर्डर गर्न सकिन्छ ।

    Source : https://nepalauto.com/online-ausadhi-for-home-delivery-of-medicine

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